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Triśatikāyāḥ prajñāpāramitāyāḥ kārikāsaptatiḥ能斷金剛般若波羅蜜多經論頌金剛般若波羅蜜經論金剛般若波羅蜜經論般若波羅蜜金剛能斷論釋頌English
(1)
Triśatikāyāḥ prajñāpāramitāyāḥ kārikāsaptatiḥ
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能斷金剛般若波羅蜜多經論頌
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金剛般若波羅蜜經論卷上
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rgya gar skad du | ba dzra tstshe di kā yā pra dzñā pā ra mi tā yā bya khyā no pa ni ban dha na ka ri ka |bod skad du | śes rab kyi pha rol tu phyin pa rdo rje gcod pa bśad pa bśad sbyar gyi tshig le’ur byas pa |
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(2)
Asaṅga
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一卷無著菩薩造唐三藏法師義淨奉 制譯
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天親菩薩造元魏天竺三藏菩提流支譯法門句義及次第 世間不解離明慧大智通達教我等 歸命無量功徳身應當敬彼如是尊 頭面禮足而頂戴以能荷佛難勝事 攝受衆生利益故如是我聞。一時婆伽婆。在舍婆提城祇樹給(12)孤獨園。與大比丘衆千二百五十人倶。爾時(13)世尊。食時著衣持鉢。入舍婆提大城乞食於(14)其城中。次第乞食已。還至本處飯食訖。收衣(15)鉢洗足已。如常敷座結加趺坐。端身而住正(16)念不動(17)爾時諸比丘來詣佛所。到已頂禮佛足。右繞(18)三匝退坐一面(19)爾時慧命須菩提。在大衆中即從坐起。偏袒(20)右肩右膝著地。向佛合掌恭敬而立。白佛言。(21)希有世尊。如來應供正遍知。善護念諸菩薩。(22)善付囑諸菩薩(23)論曰。善護念者。依根熟菩薩説。善付囑者。依(24)根未熟菩薩説。云何善護念諸菩薩。云何善(25)付囑諸菩薩。偈言
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’phags pa ’jam dpal gźon nur gyur pa la phyag ’tshal lo ||
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(3)

paramo ’nugraho1[注]

jñeyaḥ śārīraḥ saparigrahaḥ |prāptāprāptāvihānau ca paramā syāt parīndanā2[注]
 || 

(3)
勝利益應知 於身并屬者得未得不退 謂最勝付囑
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巧護義應知 加彼身同行得未得 是名善付囑云何加彼身同行。謂於菩薩身中與智慧力。(29)令成就佛法故。又彼菩薩攝取衆生。與教化(c1)力。是名善護念應知。云何不退得未得。謂(2)於得未得功徳中。懼其退失付授智者。又得(3)不退者。不捨大乘故。未得不退者。於大乘中(4)欲令勝進故。是名善付囑。應知(5)經曰。世尊云何菩薩大乘中。發阿耨多羅三(6)藐三菩提心。應云何住。云何修行。云何降伏(7)其心(8)爾時佛告須菩提。善哉善哉。須菩提。如汝所(9)説。如來善護念諸菩薩。善付囑諸菩薩。汝今(10)諦聽當爲汝説。如菩薩大乘中發阿耨多羅三(11)藐三菩提心。應如是住。如是修行。如是降伏(12)其心。須菩提白佛言。世尊。如是願樂欲聞。佛(13)告須菩提。諸菩薩生如是心。所有一切衆生(14)衆生所攝。若卵生。若胎生。若濕生。若化生。(15)若有色若無色。若有想若無想。若非有想非(16)無想。所有衆生界衆生所攝。我皆令入無餘(17)涅槃而滅度之。如是滅度無量無邊衆生。實(18)無衆生得滅度者。何以故。須菩提。若菩薩有(19)衆生相。即非菩薩。何以故非。須菩提。若菩薩(20)起衆生相人相壽者相。則不名菩薩(21)論曰。云何菩薩大乘中住。問答示現此義。偈(22)言
(3)
phan gdags pa yi dam pa ni | lus daṅ ’khor bcas śes par bya ||thob daṅ ma thob mi ñams pa | yoṅs su gtad pa’i dam pa yin ||
(3)
1. As the supreme favour should be considered the body (bestowed upon the bodhisattva, since the Buddha-characteristics come therein to maturation) as well as the other things connected with it; suprerne entrusting means that he does not loose either what he has obtained or what he has not yet obtained (because he does not forsake the mahāyāna nor his endeavour to be proficient in it).
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vipulaḥ3[注]

paramo4[注]

’tyanto5[注]

’viparyastaś6[注]
 ca cetasi |upakārā
śayaḥ sthānaṃ yāne ’smin guṇapūritaḥ || 

(4)
於心廣最勝 至極無顛倒利益意樂處 此乘功徳滿
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廣大第一常 其心不顛倒利益深心住 此乘功徳滿此偈説何等義。若菩薩有四種深利益菩提(26)心。此是菩薩大乘住處。何以故。此深心功徳(27)滿。足是故四種深利益攝取心生。能住大乘中」(28)何等爲四種心。一廣二第一三常四不顛倒。(29)云何廣心利益。如經諸菩薩生如是心所有(a1)一切衆生衆生所攝。乃至所有衆生界衆生(2)所攝故(3)云何第一心利益。如經我皆令住無餘涅槃(4)而滅度之故(5)云何常心利益。如經如是滅度無量無邊衆(6)生實無衆生得滅度者。何以故。須菩提。若菩(7)薩有衆生相即非菩薩故。此義云何。菩薩取(8)一切衆生猶如我身。以此義故。菩薩自身滅(9)度。無異衆生得滅度者。若菩薩於衆生起衆(10)生想。不生我想者則不應得菩薩名。如是取(11)衆生如我身。常不捨離。是名常心利益(12)云何不顛倒心利益。如經。何以故非。須菩提。(13)若菩薩起衆生相人相壽者相。則不名菩薩(14)故。此示現遠離依止身見衆生等相故(15)論曰。自此以下説菩薩如大乘中住修行。
(4)
sems la phan pa’i bsam pa ni | rgya chen mchog daṅ gtan du daṅ ||phyin ci ma log gnas pa ste | theg pa ’di la yon tan rdzogs ||
(4)
2. the intention (āśaya) of benefitting others, which appears in his mind (and which aims at illumination) is full of good qualities; it is fourfold:   a) vast, (because when the bodhisattva makes his vow, cittotpāda, his purpose is to lead to salvation all the living beings);   b) supreme, (because his aim is that aIl these beings should enter perfect nirvāṇa);   c) absolute, (because no being at all does in reality exist);   d) not erroneous (because in case he thinks of some being as existent he would no longer be a bodhisattva); it represents the way of staying in this vehicle (of the gnosis).
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dānaṃ pāramitāṣatkam āmiṣābhayadharmataḥ |ekadvayatrayeṇeha pratipat sā ’pratiṣṭhitā ||7[注]


(5)
六度皆名施 由財無畏法此中一二三 名修行不住
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(16)此事應知(17)經曰。復次須菩提。菩薩不住於事。行於布施。(18)無所住行於布施。不住色布施。不住聲香味(19)觸法布施。須菩提。菩薩應如是布施。不住於(20)相想。何以故。若菩薩不住相布施。其福徳聚(21)不可思量。須菩提。於汝意云何。東方虚空可(22)思量不。須菩提言。不也世尊。佛言如是。須(23)菩提。南西北方四維上下虚空可思量不。須(24)菩提言。不也世尊。佛言。如是如是。須菩提。(25)菩薩無住相布施。福徳聚亦復如是不可思(26)量(27)佛復告須菩提。菩薩但應如是行於布施(28)論曰。偈言檀義攝於六 資生無畏法此中一二三 名爲修行住何故唯檀波羅蜜。名説六波羅蜜。一切波羅(3)蜜檀波羅蜜相義示現故。一切波羅蜜檀相(4)義者。謂資生無畏法檀波羅蜜應知。此義云(5)何。資生者。即一檀波羅蜜體名故。無畏檀波(6)羅蜜者有二。謂尸波羅蜜羼提波羅蜜。於已(7)作未作惡不生怖畏故。法檀波羅蜜者有三。(8)謂毘梨耶波羅蜜等不疲惓。善知心如實説(9)法故此即是菩薩摩訶薩修行住。如向説三(10)種檀攝六波羅蜜。是名菩薩摩訶薩修行住。
(5)
zaṅ ziṅ mi ’jigs chos kyi ni | sbyin pa pha rol phyin drug ste ||gcig daṅ gros daṅ gsum gyis ni | lam de ’dir ni mi gnas yin ||
(5)
Coming then to the explanation how the prajñāpāramitā should be practised, the text states that the bodhisattva must practise the pāramitā of liberality without therefore taking anything as real. But then, one may ask, why is here liberality alone mentioned when the pāramitās are six?3. The six pāramitās are alluded to by the mere mention of liberality and this on account of the character common to all of giving something, whether it be   a) goods (āmiṣa);   b) protection (abhaya);   c) the Law itself (dharma). The first contains only one element viz, the giving itself; the second two, viz. observance of the moral rules and patience; the third, three viz, energy, meditation and gnosis. Such a path is said to be a path which has no hold on anything (apratiṣṭhita).
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ātmabhāve8[注]

pratikṛtau9[注]

vipāke10[注]

cāpy asaktatā |apravṛttitadanyārthapravṛttiparivarjane || 

(6)
爲自身報恩 果報皆不著爲離於不起 及離爲餘行
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(11)云何菩薩不住於事行於布施。如是等偈言自身及報恩 果報斯不著護存已不施 防求於異事不住於事者。謂不著自身。無所住者。謂不著(15)報恩。報恩者。謂供養恭敬種種等門。如經無(16)所住故。不住色等者。謂不著果報。何故如是(17)不住行於布施。偈言。護存已不施防求於異(18)事。若著自身不行布施。爲護此事於身不著。(19)若著報恩果報捨佛菩提。爲異義行於布施。(20)爲防是行於事不著(21)自此*以下説
(6)
lus daṅ lan du phan ’dogs daṅ | rnam par sbźin la chags pa med ||mi ’jug pa daṅ gźan dag tu | ’jug pa yoṅs su spaṅ phyir ro ||
(6)
What is the meaning of: “not give a gift while fixing on an object”?4. No attachment:   a) to one’s own self as something really existent (implicit in vastu);   b) to the expectation of a reward for the good which has been done (implicit in kvacit, reward being lābha and satkāra) and   c) to the result of the good action which has been accomplished (implicit in rūpa).   (This suggests that) two things should be equally avoided: the non-practice of liberality (on account of love to one’s own person), and the practice of it when it aims at something else than right meditation.   This explains how liberality should be practised.
(7)

pragraho maṇḍale tredhā nimittāc cittavāraṇam |uttarottarasaṃdehajanmataś ca nivāraṇā ||11[注]

(7)
攝伏在三輪 於相心除遣後後諸疑惑 隨生皆悉除
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云何菩薩降伏其心。此事應知。(22)云何降伏心。名之降伏。偈言調伏彼事中 遠離取相心及斷種種疑 亦防生成心此文説何義。所謂不見施物受者及施者。偈(26)言。調伏彼事中遠離取相心故。如經須菩提(27)菩薩應如是布施不住於相想故(28)次説布施利益。何以故。此中有疑。若離施等(29)相想。云何能成施福。彼人如是布施。其福轉(c1)多故(2)次説布施利益。如經。何以故。若菩薩不住相(3)布施。其福徳聚不可思量。須菩提。於意云何。(4)東方虚空可思量不。須菩提言。不也世尊。如(5)是等。何故説修行後。次顯布施利益。以得降(6)伏心故。是以次説布施利益。此義云何。不住(7)相想行於布施。成就義故(8)自此*以下一切修多羅。示現斷生疑心。云何(9)生疑。
(7)
’khor du rab tu ’dzin pa des | mtshan ma las ni sems bzlog daṅ ||phyir źin the tshom skye ba las | sems ni bzlog par byed pa yin ||
(7)
The sūtra then explains the control of mind:   5. a) the control of mind concerning the group of the things to be considered under three different points of view (viz. as regards liberality in itself, the person to whom liberality is shown and the donor, the three being equally non existent);   b) the keeping away of the mind from the assumption of the existence of characters peculiar (to the things, as if they were existent);   c) the elimination of the subsequent doubts which may arise, one after the other, as regards the statement contained in the text (chiefly that, if there is no liberality, no merit derived from it would be possible).
(8)
saṃskṛtatvena saṃkalpya saṃpat prāptau nivāryate |trailakṣaṇyānyathābhāvāt tadabhāvāt tathāgataḥ ||
(8)
若將爲集造 妙相非勝相三相遷異故 無此謂如來
(8)
分別有爲體 防彼成就得三相異體故 離彼是如來
(8)
若不住於法行於布施。云何爲佛菩提(10)行於布施斷彼疑心(11)經曰。須菩提。於意云何。可以相成就見如來(12)不。須菩提言。不也世尊。不可以相成就得見(13)如來。何以故。如來所説相即非相(14)佛告須菩提。凡所有相皆是妄語。若見諸相(15)非相。則非妄語。如是諸相非相。則見如來(16)論曰。偈言此義云何。若分別有爲體。是如來以有爲相(20)爲第一。以相成就見如來。爲防彼相成就(21)得如來身(22)如經。不可以相成就得見如來故。何以故。如(23)來名無爲法身故。如經。何以故。如來所説相(24)即非相。偈言。三相異體故離彼是如來。彼相(25)成就即非相成就。何以故。三相異如來體故(26)如經。佛告須菩提。凡所有相皆是妄語。若見(27)諸相非相。則非妄語。如是諸相非相。則見如(28)來。此句顯有爲虚妄故。偈言。離彼是如來。示(29)現彼處三相無故。相非相相對故。彼處生住(a1)滅異體不可得故。此句明如來體非有爲故。(2)菩薩如是知如來爲佛菩提行於布施。彼菩(3)薩不住於法行於布施。成如是斷疑故(4)自此*以下。尊者須菩提生疑致問(5)經曰。須菩提白佛言。世尊。頗有衆生。於未來(6)世末世。得聞如是修多羅章句生實相不。佛(7)告須菩提。莫作是説。頗有衆生於未來世末(8)世。得聞如是修多羅章句生實相不。佛復告(9)須菩提。有未來世末世。有菩薩摩訶薩。法欲(10)滅時有持戒修福徳智慧者。於此修多羅章(11)句。能生信心。以此爲實(12)佛復告須菩提。當知彼菩薩摩訶薩非於一(13)佛二佛三四五佛所修行供養。非於一佛二(14)佛三四五佛所而種善根(15)佛復告須菩提。已於無量百千萬諸佛所修(16)行供養。無量百千萬諸佛所種諸善根。聞是(17)修多羅。乃至一念能生淨信。須菩提。如來悉(18)知是諸衆生。如來悉見是諸衆生。須菩提。是(19)諸菩薩生如是無量福徳聚。取如是無量福(20)徳。何以故。須菩提。是諸菩薩無復我相衆生(21)相人相壽者相。須菩提。是諸菩薩無法相亦(22)非無法相。無相亦非無相。何以故。須菩提。是(23)諸菩薩若取法相。則爲著我人衆生壽者。須(24)菩提。若是菩薩有法相。即著我相人相衆生(25)相壽者相。何以故。須菩提。不應取法。非不取(26)法。以是義故。如來常説筏喩法門。是法應(27)捨。非捨法故(28)論曰。此義云何。向依波羅蜜説不住行於布(29)施。説因深義。向依如來非有爲體。説果深義。(b1)若爾未來惡世人不生信心。云何不空説。爲(2)斷彼疑。佛答此義(3)如經。佛告須菩提。莫作是説。乃至非捨法故。(4)此義云何。偈言
(8)
’dus byas ñid du kun brtags pas | ’byor pa’i ’thob pa bzlog par mdzad ||mtshan ñid gsum ni ’gyur ba’i phyir | de med pa ni de bźin gśegs ||
(8)
Somebody may ask: if the liberality is practised without believing in the existence of the things, dharmas, how then can one practise it in the hope of obtaining Buddhahood? Therefore the sūtra says: tat kiṃ manyase lakṣaṇa saṃpadā etc. “What do you think, Subhūti, is the Buddha to he seen on account of the perfection of his signs etc.?” p. 22,1.1.
(9)
sahetuphalagāmbhīryadeśanāsmin yugādhame |na niṣphalā yataḥ santi bodhisattvās trayānvitāḥ ||
(9)
因與果甚深 於彼惡時説此非無利益 由三菩薩殊
(9)
説因果深義 於彼惡世時不空以有實 菩薩三徳備
(9)
此義云何。彼惡世時。菩薩具足持戒功徳智(8)慧故。能生信心。以此義故名不空説。又偈言
(9)
dus na tshe na rgyu daṅ ’bras | bcas par zab par bstan pa ni ||byaṅ chub sems dpa’ gsum ldan pa | yod pa’i phyir na don med min ||
(9)
6. One may suppose that Buddhahood is something produced (on account of the merits of liberality etc.); therefore, (in order to refute that assumption, here) it is excluded that perfection consists in obtaining the signs (of the mahāpuruṣa), which are peculiar to the apparitional body; in fact the dharmkāya being non-produced, no signs of mahāpuruṣa can be superimposed on it. Therefore the sūtra says: yā sā lakṣaṇasaṃpat ... saivālakṣaṇasaṃpat p. 22, l. 3), viz. Buddhahood is something different from the three characters (which are peculiar to everything produced: origination, duration, destruction). In fact difference from (viz, absence of) that triple character is said to be the Tathāgata (viz. the condition of the Tathāgata is not produced).
(10)
śikṣayopāsānāt pūrvaṃ kuśalasyāvaropaṇāt |śīlavanto ’nyabuddheṣu guṇavantaś ca kīrtitāḥ ||
(10)
由於先佛所 奉持於戒學并植善根故 名具戒具徳
(10)
修戒於過去 及種諸善根戒具於諸佛 亦説功徳滿
(10)
如經。佛復告須菩提。當知彼菩薩摩訶薩非(12)於一佛二佛三四五佛所修行供養。非於一(13)佛二佛三四五佛所而種善根(14)佛告須菩提。已於無量百千萬諸佛所修行(15)供養。無量百千萬諸佛所種諸善根故。此經(16)文明於過去諸佛具足持戒供養彼佛。亦種(17)諸善根。如是次第。彼持戒具足。功徳具足故。(18)又偈言
(10)
sṅan chad saṅs rgyas gźan dag la | bslab pa’i sgo nas bsñen bkur byas ||dge ba dag kyan bskyed pa’i phyir | khrims ldan yon tan ldan par bstan ||
(10)
[End of chapter 5]
(11)
sapudgaleṣu dharmeṣu saṃjñāyā viprahāṇataḥ |prajñāvantaś ca saṃjñāyā aṣṭadhāṣṭārthabhedataḥ ||
(11)
能斷於我想 及以法想故此名爲具慧 二四殊成八
(11)
彼壽者及法 遠離於取相亦説知彼相 依八八義別
(11)
此義云何。復説般若義不斷故。説何等義。明(22)彼菩薩離於壽者相離於法相故。以對彼相(23)故説此義。偈言。依八八義別故。此復云何。依(24)四種壽者相。有四種義故。依四種法相有四(25)種義故。是故依八相有八種義差別故。此義(26)復云何。偈言
(11)
gaṅ zag chos daṅ bcas rnams kyi | ’du śes spaṅs phyir śes rab ldan ||don brgyad yod pa’i bye brag gis | ’du śes rnams la brgyad du ’gyur ||
(11)
These ideas (the practice of liberality etc. apratiṣṭhita and transcendence of the Buddha) are so difficult to be grasped that, in future, when Buddhism will begin to decline, there will hardly be people disposed to believe it (p. 22, 17).
(12)
pṛthagbhāvena saṃtatyā vṛtter ājīvitasthiteḥ |punaś ca gatilīnatvād ātmasaṃjñā caturvidhā ||
(12)
別體相續起 至壽盡而住更求於餘趣 我想有四種
(12)
差別相續體 不斷至命住復趣於異道 是我相四種
(12)
此義云何。明壽者相義故。何者是四種。一者(c1)我相。二者衆生相。三者命相。四者壽者相。我(2)相者見五陰差別。一一陰是我。如是妄取是(3)名我相。衆生相者。見身相續不斷。是名衆生(4)相。命相者。一報命根不斷住故。是名命相。壽(5)者相者。命根斷滅復生六道。是名壽者相。如(6)經。何以故。須菩提。是諸菩薩無復我相衆生(7)相人相壽者相故。云何及法。偈言
(12)
dṅos po so so rgyun gyis ’jug | ji srid ’tsho yi bar du gnas ||phyir yan ’gro bar sbyor bas na | bdag tu ’du śes rnam bźir ’gyur ||
(12)
7. This teaching of something very deep, along with the (peculiar notion) of cause and effect, which is implicit in it, even in this cosmic age (yuga), the worst of all, is not fruitless, because there are (even now) bodhisattvas possessed of the three necessary qualities (good qualities, moral conduct and wisdom, guṇavantaḥ śīlavantaḥ prajñāvantaḥ, as it is said at p. 22, l. 17).Asaṅga is now going to explain that sentence in the following kārikā.
(13)
sarvābhāvād abhāvasya sadbhāvān nābhilāpyataḥ |abhilāpaprayogāc ca dharmasaṃjñā caturvidhā ||
(13)
皆無故非有 有故不可説是言説因故 法想有四種
(13)
一切空無物 實有不可説依言辭而説 是法相四種
(13)
何者是四種。一者法相。二者非法相。三者相。(11)四者非相。此義云何。有可取能取一切法。無(12)故言無法相。以無物故。彼法無我空實有故。(13)言亦非無法相。彼空無物。而此不可説有無(14)故言無相。依言辭而説故。言亦非無相。何以(15)故。以於無言處依言相説。是故依八種差別(16)義。離八種相。所謂離人相離法相。是故説有(17)智慧(18)如經。須菩提。是諸菩薩無法相。亦非無法相。(19)無相亦非無相故。有智慧便足。何故復説持(20)戒功徳。爲示現生實相差別義故。云何示現。(21)偈言
(13)
kun med phyir daṅ med pa ni | yod pa’i phyir daṅ brjod med phyir ||brjod pa’i sbyor ba yod pas na | chos kyi ’du śes rnam bźir ’gyur ||
(13)
8. Since, in their former existence, they have attended (the Buddhas) by means of the (triple) training and have planted roots of moral merits in front of the Buddhas, other (than the last one, these Bodhisattvas are said) to be possessed of moral conduct and of good qualities.Having so explained why the sūtra calls these bodhisattvas śīlavantaḥ and guṇavantaḥ, the A. passes on to explaining the third epithet: prajñāvantaḥ, possessed of wisdom.
(14)
adhimuktivaśāt teṣāṃ bhūtasaṃjñā prasādataḥ |yathārutāgrahāt saṃyagdeśitatvasya codgrahāt ||
(14)
由彼信解力 信故生實想不如言取故 取爲正説故
(14)
彼人依信心 恭敬生實相聞聲不正取 正説如是取
(14)
此義云何。彼人有持戒功徳。依信心恭敬能(25)生實相。是以説彼義故。次言聞説如是修多(26)羅章句乃至一念生淨信者。是故不但説般(27)若。又有智慧者。不如聲取義。隨順第一義智(28)正説如是取。能生實相。是以説此義故。次言(29)須菩提不應取法非不取法。不應取法者。不(1)應如聲取法。非不取法者。隨順第一義智正(2)説如是取。彼菩薩聞説如是修多羅章句生(3)實相故。又經復言。須菩提。如來悉知是諸衆(4)生。如來悉見是諸衆生。如是等。此明何義。偈(5)言
(14)
de dag mos pa’i dbaṅ gis na | dad pas yaṅ dag ’du śes so ||sgra bźin ’dzin pa ma yin daṅ | yaṅ dag bstan pa ’dzin phyir ro ||
(14)
9. They are also possessed of wisdom, because they have cut off any assumption as regards the substantiality of dharmas as well as of any metaphysical entity in the beings. This assumption is eightfold because its objects are eightfold, viz., as will be explained below, four, assumptions concerning the metaphysical entity in beings: ātman, sattva, jīva, pudgala; and four assumptions concerning dharmas: dharma , adharma, saṃjñā, asaṃjñā (p. 23, l. 7-8). Therefore he adds:
(15)
phalato na mitā buddhaiḥ praṇidhijñānalakṣitāḥ |lābhasatkārakāmānāṃ tadvādavinivṛttaye ||
(15)
佛了果非比 由願智故知爲求利敬者 遮其自説故
(15)
佛非見果知 願智力現見求供養恭敬 彼人不能説
(15)
此義云何。彼持戒等人。諸佛如來非見果比(9)知。云何知。偈言。願智力現見故。如來悉知是(10)諸衆生便足。何故復説。如來悉見是諸衆生。(11)若不説如來悉見是諸衆生。或謂如來以比(12)智知。恐生如是心故。若爾但言如來悉見是(13)諸衆生便足。何故復説如來悉知是諸衆生。(14)若不説如來悉知是諸衆生。或謂如來以肉(15)眼等見。爲防是故。何故如是説。以有二語故。(16)又何故如來如是説。偈言。求供養恭敬彼人(17)不能説故。此義云何。若有人欲得供養恭敬。(18)自歎有持戒等功徳。彼人則不能説。是人自(19)知故。諸佛如來善知彼何等人有何等行。是(20)故彼人不能自説(21)又是諸菩薩生如是無量福徳聚。取如是無(22)量福徳者。此義云何。生者能生因故。取者熏(23)修自體果義故。又何以故。須菩提。是諸菩薩(24)若取法相。則爲著我人衆生壽者。此義云何。(25)但有無明使無現行麁煩惱。示無我見故。又(26)經言。以是義故。如來常説筏喩法門。是法應(27)捨非捨法者。有何次第。偈言
(15)
saṅs rgyas ’bras bus dpog med mdzad | smon nas śes pas thugs su chud ||rñed daṅ bkur sti ’dod pa rnams | de skad smra ha bzlog pa’i phyir ||
(15)
10. The assumption of a metaphysical entity in the beings is fourfold; in fact it can be considereda) as something existing apart from the five constituents of a person (ātman);b) as a continuity of existence (sattva);c) as a duration up to the end of life (jīva);d) as a clinging to a new form of existence (pudgala).As regards dharmas:
(16)
asthānād ānukūlyāc ca dharmeṣv adhigamasya hi |kolasyeva parityāgo dharme saṃdhis tato mataḥ ||
(16)
證不住於法 爲是隨順故猶如捨其筏 是密意應知
(16)
彼不住隨順 於法中證智如人捨船筏 法中義亦然
(16)
此義云何。示修多羅等法中證智不住故。以(2)得證智捨法故。如到彼岸捨筏故。隨順者。隨(3)順彼證智法。彼法應取。如人未到彼岸取筏(4)故(5)自此以下。説何等義。爲遮異疑故。云何異疑。(6)向説不可以相成就得見如來。何以故。如來(7)非有爲相得名故。若如是云何釋迦牟尼佛。(8)得阿耨多羅三藐三菩提。説名爲佛。云何説(9)法。是名異疑。爲斷此疑。云何斷疑(10)經曰。復次佛告慧命須菩提。須菩提。於意云(11)何。如來得阿耨多羅三藐三菩提耶。如來有(12)所説法耶。須菩提言。如我解佛所説義。無有(13)定法如來得阿耨多羅三藐三菩提。亦無有(14)定法如來可説。何以故。如來所説法。皆不可(15)取不可説。非法非非法。何以故。一切聖人皆(16)以無爲法得名(17)論曰。以是義故。釋迦牟尼佛。非佛亦非説(18)法。此義云何。偈言
(16)
khoṅ du chud pa chos rnams la | mi gnas phyir daṅ mthun pa’i phyir ||gziṅs daṅ ’dra bar yoṅs su blaṅ | de phyir chos kyi dgoṅs par bźed ||
(16)
11. The assumption of dharmas is also fourfold (though no assumption of dharmas, dharmasaṃjñā, is really possible), becausea) all dharmas are not existent (the notion of perceiver and perceived being untenable); (on the other hand the assumption of no-dharma is impossible),b) because there exists this non-existence) (as voidness, śūnya; nor assumption, saṃjñā, is possible),c) because there is nothing of which something can be postulated; (but non assumption is also impossible),d) because there is the conventional use of predicating something of something. One may now ask why the bodhisattvas possessed of wisdom have been discussed apart from those possessed of moral conduct and good qualities? The reply is found in the fact that the bhūta-saṃjñā, viz. the assumption according to truth, is something distinct:
(17)
nairmāṇikena no buddho dharmo nāpi ca deśitaḥ |deśitas tu dvayāgrāhyo ’vācyo ’vākpathalakṣaṇāt ||
(17)
化體非眞佛 亦非説法者説法非二取 所説離言詮
(17)
應化非眞佛 亦非説法者説法不二取 無説離言相
(17)
此義云何。佛有三種。一者法身佛。二者報佛。(22)三者化佛。又釋迦牟尼名爲佛者。此是化佛。(23)此佛不證阿耨多羅三藐三菩提。亦不説法。(24)如經無有定法如來得阿耨多羅三藐三菩(25)提。亦無有定法如來可説。若爾何故經言。何(26)以故。如來所説法皆不可取不可説。如是等。(27)有人謗言。如來一向不説法。爲遮此故。偈言。(28)應化非眞佛亦非説法者故。説法不二取無(29)説離言相者。聽者不取法不取非法故。説者(1)亦不二説法非法故。何以故。彼法非法非非(c2)法。依何義説。依眞如義説。非法者。一切法(3)無體相故。非非法者。彼眞如無我相實有故。(4)何故唯言説不言證。有言説者。即成證義故。(5)若不證者。則不能説。如經。何以故。一切聖人(6)皆以無爲法得名。此句明何義。彼法是説因(7)故。何以故。一切聖人依眞如法清淨得名。以(8)無爲法得名故。以此義故。彼聖人説彼無爲(9)法。復以何義。如彼聖人所證法。不可如是説。(10)何況如是取。何以故。彼法遠離言語相。非可(11)説事故。何故不但言佛。乃説一切聖人。以一(12)切聖人依眞如清淨得名故。如是具足清淨(13)如分清淨故(14)經曰。須菩提。於意云何。若滿三千大千世界(15)七寶。以用布施。須菩提。於意云何。是善男子(16)善女人所得福徳。寧爲多不。須菩提言。甚多(17)婆伽婆。甚多修伽陀。彼善男子善女人得福(18)甚多。何以故。世尊。是福徳聚即非福徳聚。是(19)故如來説福徳聚福徳聚(20)佛言。須菩提。若善男子善女人。以滿三千大(21)千世界七寶。持用布施。若復於此經中受持(22)乃至四句偈等。爲他人説。其福勝彼無量不(23)可數。何以故。須菩提。一切諸佛阿耨多羅三(24)藐三菩提法。皆從此經出。一切諸佛如來皆(25)從此經生。須菩提。所謂佛法。佛法者即非佛(26)法。是名佛法(27)論曰。此説勝福徳譬喩校量。示現何義。法雖(28)不可取不可説。而不空故。偈言
(17)
sprul pa yin pas saṅs rgyas bźin | chos kyaṅ bźad pa med pa yin ||bstan kyaṅ gñis su gsuṅ du med | tshig lam mtshan ñid bźin brjod med ||
(17)
12. On account of four reasons, viz.:a) their faith in the sūtras (when they listen to their contents);b) their being pleased with them;c) their understanding of the meaning of the sūtras not according to their verbal expressions;d) on the contrary their grasping properly what has been there taught; (for these reasons) the right assumption of truth is peculiar to these (Bodhisattvas).But who are those creatures to whom the sūtra has already referred and are known and seen by the Tathāgata only? p. 23, l. 2. 4. The sūtra says that the results acquired by those bodhisattvas are known by the Tathāgata, they are not inferred, but intuitively perceived, not seen by the corporeal eye. In order to make this point clear the A. comments:
(18)
grahaṇadeśaṇā cāsya nāpārthā puṇyasaṃgrahāt |puṇyaṃ bodhyanupastaṃbhād upastaṃbhād dvayasya ca ||
(18)
自受爲他説 非無益集福福不持菩提 彼二能持故
(18)
受持法及説 不空於福徳福不趣菩提 二能趣菩提
(18)
何故説言。世尊是福徳聚即非福徳聚者。偈(3)言。福不趣菩提二能趣菩提故。此義云何。彼(4)福徳不趣大菩提。二能趣大菩提故。何者爲(5)二(6)一者受持。二者演説。如經受持乃至四句偈(7)等。爲他人説故。何故名福徳聚。聚義有二種。(8)一者積聚義。二者進趣義。如人擔重説名爲(9)聚。如是彼福徳聚以有積聚義故。説名爲聚。(10)於菩提不能進趣故。名爲非福徳聚。此二能(11)趣大菩提。是故於彼福徳中此福爲勝。云何(12)此二能得大菩提。如經何以故。須菩提一切(13)諸佛阿耨多羅三藐三菩提法皆從此經出。(14)一切諸佛如來皆從此經生故。云何説一切(15)諸佛菩提法皆從此經出。云何説一切諸佛(16)如來皆從此經生。偈言
(18)
de ’dzin pa daṅ hstan pa ni | bsod nams sdud phyir don med bźin ||bsod nams byaṅ chub ston bźin daṅ | gñis ni rtog pa yin phyir ro ||
(18)
13. The qualities (referred to above) of these bodhisattvas are not inferred by the Buddhas on account of the results they bring about, but they are (directly) ascertained by them, on account of the knowledge (peculiar to the Buddhas) and descended from the vow originally made. The Buddha has so said (in the passage here considered of the sūtra) in order to refute (the possibility) of such a statement on the part of those who desire to obtain profit and honours (and proclaim themselves to be holy men).
(19)
svābhāvikāptihetutvāt tadanyasya ca janmanaḥ |kaivalyād buddhadharmāṇām agryatvaṃ puṇyasādhanam ||
(19)
得自性因故 此餘者是生唯是佛法故 能成最勝福
(19)
於實名了因 亦爲餘生因唯獨諸佛法 福成第一體
(19)
此義云何。菩提者名爲法身。彼體實無爲。是(20)故於彼法身。此二能作了因。不能作生因。餘(21)者受報相好莊嚴佛化身相好佛。於此爲生(22)因。以能作菩提因。是故名因。顯彼福徳中此(23)福勝故。如經。何以故。須菩提乃至皆從此(24)經生故。云何成此義。偈言。唯獨諸佛法福成(25)第一體故(26)須菩提所謂佛法佛法者即非佛法者。彼諸(27)佛法餘人不得。是故彼佛法名爲佛法。是故(28)言唯獨諸佛法。第一不共義。以能作第一法(29)因。是故彼福徳中。此福爲勝。如是成福徳多(1)故(b2)經曰。須菩提。於意云何。須陀洹能作是念。我(3)得須陀洹果不。須菩提言。不也世尊。何以故。(4)實無有法名須陀洹。不入色聲香味觸法。是(5)名須陀洹。佛言。須菩提。於意云何。斯陀含能(6)作是念。我得斯陀含果不。須菩提言。不也世(7)尊。何以故。實無有法名斯陀含。是名斯陀含。(8)須菩提。於意云何。阿那含能作是念。我得阿(9)那含果不。須菩提言。不也世尊。何以故。實無(10)有法名阿那含是名阿那含。須菩提。於意云(11)何。阿羅漢能作是念。我得阿羅漢不。須菩提(12)言。不也世尊。何以故。實無有法名阿羅漢。世(13)尊。若阿羅漢作是念。我得阿羅漢。即爲著我(14)人衆生壽者。世尊。佛説我得無諍三昧最爲(15)第一。世尊。説我是離欲阿羅漢。世尊。我不作(16)是念。我是離欲阿羅漢。世尊。我若作是念。我(17)得阿羅漢。世尊。則不説我無諍行第一。以須(18)菩提實無所行。而名須菩提無諍無諍行(19)論曰。向説聖人無爲法得名。以是義故。彼法(20)不可取不可説。若須陀洹等聖人取自果。云(21)何言彼法不可取。既如證如説云何成不可(22)説。自下經文爲斷此疑。成彼法不可取不可(23)説故。偈言
(19)
ṅo bo ñid ’thob rgyu yin pas | de las gźan pa skye ba yin ||saṅs rgyas chos rnams ma ’dres phyir | mchog yin pas na bsod nams bsgrubs ||
(19)
14. The grasping of the Law (as expounded in the sūtras etc.) is such that one should not repose on it (when one has possessed its meaning), but at the same time conform to it; it should then (be taken and) rejected as a raft (which is useful until one reaches the other shore, but is abandoned when one has reached it], This is said to be the hidden implication inherent in the Law (which states that the dharma should be at the same time embraced and abandoned).[End of chapter 6] But now another doubt is possible: if, as stated before, the Buddha should not be viewed from the perfection of his corporeal signs, because Buddhahood is not produced, how is it, then, that in the scriptures it is affirmed that the Buddha has realized the supreme illumination and that he then preached it? This traditional view would contradict what is here affirmed viz, that there is no illumination to be realized, nor any Law to be preached. Commenting upon p. 24, l. 1 fr. the A. goes on to say:
(20)
agrāhyānabhilapyatvaṃ svaphalānām anudgrahāt |dvayāvaraṇanirmokṣāt subhūtāv araṇādvayaṃ ||
(20)
不取自果故 非可取可説解脱二障故 説妙生無諍
(20)
不可取及説 自果不取故依彼善吉者 説離二種障
(20)
此義云何。以聖人無爲法得名。是故不取一(27)法。不取者不取六塵境界。以是義故。名不取(28)逆流者。如經不入色聲香味觸法。是名須陀(29)洹故。乃至阿羅漢不取一法。以是義故。名爲(c1)羅漢。然聖人非不取無爲法。以取自果故。(2)若聖人起如是心我能得果。即爲著我等者。(3)此義云何。以有使煩惱非行煩惱。何以故。彼(4)於證時離取我等煩惱。是故無如是心我能(5)得果。何故尊者須菩提。自歎身得受記。以自(6)身證果。爲於彼義中生信心故。何故唯説無(7)諍行。爲明勝功徳故。爲生深信故。何故言以(8)須菩提實無所行。而名須菩提無諍無諍行(9)者。偈言依彼善吉者説離二種障故。二種障(10)者。一者煩惱障。二者三昧障。離彼二障故(11)言無所行。以是義故。説名二種諍離彼二種(12)障故。名爲無諍無諍行(13)經曰。佛告須菩提。於意云何。如來昔在然燈(14)佛所。得阿耨多羅三藐三菩提法不。須菩提(15)言。不也世尊。如來在然燈佛所。於法實無所(16)得阿耨多羅三藐三菩提(17)論曰。復有疑釋迦如來昔在然燈佛所受法。(18)彼佛爲此佛説法。若如是云何彼法不可説(19)不可取。爲斷此疑。説彼佛所無法可取。如經(20)不也世尊如來在然燈佛所。於法實無所得(21)阿耨多羅三藐三菩提故。何故如是説。偈言
(20)
raṅ gi ’bras bu gzuṅ med phyir | gzuṅ du med ciṅ brjod du med ||sgrib pa gñis las ṅes grol phyir | rab ’byor ’di la sgrib gñis med ||
(20)
15. By the fact of being apparitional, the apparitional body is not really the Buddha, nor any Law has been taught by it; on the contrary it has been taught that no dharma can ever be grasped in either way, viz, either (as dharma or as non-dharma as stated before) and that it is therefore inexpressible because it transcends the path of words. [End of chapter 7]But though the Law cannot be grasped nor taught, still it is not unreal, it exists. (In fact the sūtra says: tat kiṃ manyase, subhūte, yaḥ kaścit kulaputra etc. 24, l. 10 ff.].
(21)
buddhadīpaṃkarāgrāhād vakyenādhigamasya hi |tataś cādhigame siddhā agrāhyānabhilāpyatā ||
(21)
在然燈佛所 言不取證法由斯證法成 非所取所説
(21)
佛於然燈語 不取理實智以是眞實義 成彼無取説
(21)
此義云何。釋迦如來於然燈佛所。言語所説(25)不取證法故。以是義故。顯彼證智不可説不(26)可取。偈言以是眞實義成彼無取説故(27)又若聖人無爲法得名。是法不可取不可説」(28)云何諸菩薩取莊嚴淨佛國土。云何受樂報(29)佛取自法王身。云何餘世間復取彼是法王(a1)身。自下經文爲斷此疑(2)經曰。佛告須菩提。若菩薩作是言。我莊嚴佛(3)國土。彼菩薩不實語。何以故。須菩提。如來所(4)説莊嚴佛土者。則非莊嚴是名莊嚴佛土。是(5)故須菩提。諸菩薩摩訶薩。應如是生清淨心。(6)而無所住。不住色生心。不住聲香味觸法生(7)心。應無所住而生其心(8)須菩提。譬如有人身如須彌山王。須菩提。於(9)意云何。是身爲大不。須菩提言。甚大世尊。何(10)以故。佛説非身是名大身。彼身非身是名大(11)身(12)論曰。此義如是應知。云何知。偈言
(21)
mar me mdzad las saṅs rgyas kyis | rtogs pa tshig gis blaṅs pa med ||de yi phyir na rtogs pa la | gzuṅ du med daṅ brjod med grub ||
(21)
16. The grasping of that dharma (for oneself) and its teaching (to others) is not useless, because one accumulates by it a (great) quantity of merit; it is merit in so far as it is not (taken as) the support of illumination (because when the text speaks of skandha of merit, the word: skandha, has not here the sense of shoulder viz, of that which carries something, but that of accumulation, heap); on the other hand both the grasping of the dharma and its teaching can support the illumination.Therefore the sūtra immediately adds that the supreme illumination is derived from this text p. 25, 1.4 ato nirjāta.
(22)
jñānaniṣyandavijñaptimātratvāt kṣetranodgrahaḥ |avigrahatvād agratvād avyūhaṃ vyūhatā matā ||
(22)
智流唯識性 國土非所執無形故勝故 非嚴許嚴性
(22)
智習唯識通 如是取淨土非形第一體 非嚴莊嚴意
(22)
此義云何。諸佛無有莊嚴國土事。唯諸佛如(16)來眞實智慧習識通達。是故彼土不可取。若(17)人取彼國土形相。作是言我成就清淨佛土。(18)彼不實説(19)如經。何以故。須菩提如來所説莊嚴佛土者。(20)則非莊嚴是名莊嚴佛土故。何故如是説。偈(21)言非形第一體非嚴莊嚴意故。莊嚴有二種。(22)一者形相二者第一義相。是故説非嚴莊嚴。(23)又非莊嚴佛土者。無有形相故非莊嚴。如是(24)無莊嚴即是第一莊嚴。何以故。以一切功徳(25)成就莊嚴故。若人分別佛國土。是有爲形相。(26)而言我成就清淨佛國土。彼菩薩住於色等(27)境界中生如是心。爲遮此故。如經是故須菩(28)提。諸菩薩摩訶薩。應如是生清淨心而無所(29)住。不住色生心。不住聲香味觸法生心。應無(b1)所住而生其心故。前言云何受樂報佛取自(2)法王身。云何餘世間復取彼是法王身。爲除(3)此疑。説受樂報佛體同彼須彌山王鏡像義(4)故。此義云何偈言
(22)
ye śes rgyu mthun rnam rig tsam | yin pas źiṅ du ’dzin pa med ||lus med phyir mchog gi phyir | bkod pa med pa bkod par bźed ||
(22)
17. The accomplishment of merits (which is derived from the grasping of the dharma and from its teaching to others, gātham udgṛhya parebhyo deśayet p. 25, l. 3) is the summit as the cause by which one obtains what is essential (bodhi – viz. dhārmakāya - here called essential because it is not produced, asaṃskṛta), then, in so far the other body than this (viz. nirmāṇa-kāya) is born out of it and, last, since it shows the uniqueness of the qualities of the Buddha (as is indicated in the sūtra when it states that these are the dharmas of the Buddha, p. 25, l. 8).[End of chapter 8]The sūtra states that all saintly persons are defined as being beyond the conditioned, asaṃskṛtaprabhāvita (p. 24, l. 9); but, on the other hand, the scriptures tell us that the srota-āpanna etc. obtain the fruit of their conduct, Is not this a contradiction? No, for the reason explained in the same sūtra, p. 26, l. 8.
(23)
sumeror iva rājatve saṃbhoge nāsti codgrahaḥ |sāsravatvena cābhāvāt saṃskṛtatvena cāsya hi ||
(23)
譬如妙高山 於受用無取非有漏性故 亦非是因造
(23)
如山王無取 受報亦復然遠離於諸漏 及有爲法故
(23)
此義云何。如須彌山王勢力高遠故。名爲大。(8)而不取彼山王體我是山王。以無分別故。受(9)樂報佛亦如是。以得無上法王體故名爲大。(10)而不取彼法王體我是法王。以無分別故。何(11)故無分別。以無分別故(12)如經何以故。佛説非身是名大身。彼身非身(13)是名大身故。何故如是説。偈言遠離於諸漏(14)及有爲法故。彼受樂報佛體離於諸漏。若如(15)是即無有物。若如是即名有物。以唯有清淨(16)身故。以遠離有爲法故。以是義故。實有我體(17)以不依他縁住故(18)金剛般若波羅蜜經論卷上(21)金剛般若波羅蜜經論卷中(22) 天親菩薩造(23) 元魏*天竺*三藏菩提*流支*譯(24)經曰。佛言須菩提。如恒河中所有沙數。如是(25)沙等恒河。於意云何。是諸恒河沙寧爲多不。(26)須菩提言。甚多世尊。但諸恒河尚多無數。何(27)況其沙。佛言。須菩提。我今實言告汝。若有善(28)男子善女人。以七寶滿爾所恒河沙數世界。(29)以施諸佛如來。須菩提。於意云何。彼善男子(c1)善女人得福多不。須菩提言。甚多世尊。彼善(2)男子善女人得福甚多。佛告須菩提。以七寶(3)滿爾*所恒河沙世界持用布施。若善男子善(4)女人。於此法門乃至受持四句偈等爲他人(5)説。而此福徳勝前福徳。無量阿僧祇(6)論曰。前已説多福徳譬喩。何故此中復説。偈(7)言
(23)
rdzogs par loṅs spyod ri rab ltar | rgyal por ’dzin pa yoṅs mi mṅa’ ||zag bcas ñid du de med daṅ | ’dus byas ñid du med phyir ro ||
(23)
18. No dharma can be grasped nor can it be taught by words because no one (from srota-āpanna ... up to arhat) can grasp a fruit as one’s own (on account of the true nature of everything being asaṃskṛta, asaṃskṛtaprabhāvita, and of the erroneous implications of an eventual assumption that there is a partaker in that fruit like the ātman etc.] Since he is free of both impediments (the moral defilements and the intellectual defilements), in Subhūti both kinds of defilement are absent (araṇa, as is stated at p. 26, l. 12).[End of chapter 9] This statement seems to contradict the other contained in some scriptures that Śākyamuni received the Law from Dīpaṃkara. In fact such a contradiction does not exist, because, as the sūtra tells us, p. 26, l. 18, there is no doctrine which the Buddha received from Dīpamkara.
(24)
bahutvabhedakhyātyarthaṃ viśeṣasya ca siddhaye |paurvāparyeṇa puṇyasya punar dṛṣṭāntadeśanā ||
(24)
爲顯多差別 及以成殊勝前後福不同 更陳其喩説
(24)
説多義差別 亦成勝挍量後福過於前 故重説勝喩
(24)
此義云何。前説三千世界譬喩明福徳多。今(11)重説無量三千世界故。何故不先説此喩。爲(12)漸化衆生令生信心上妙義故。又前未顯以(13)何等勝功徳能得大菩提故。以此喩成彼功(14)徳。是故重説勝喩(15)經曰。復次須菩提。隨所有處説是法門。乃至(16)四句偈等。當知此處一切世間天人阿修羅(17)皆應供養如佛塔廟。何況有人盡能受持讀(18)誦此經。須菩提。當知是人成就最上第一希(19)有之法。若是經典所在之處。則爲有佛。若尊(20)重似佛。爾時須菩提白佛言。世尊。當何名此(21)法門。我等云何奉持。佛告須菩提。是法門名(22)爲金剛般若波羅蜜。以是名字汝當奉持。何(23)以故。須菩提佛説般若波羅蜜則非般若波(24)羅蜜。須菩提。於意云何。如來有所説法不。須(25)菩提言。世尊。如來無所説法。須菩提。於意云(26)何。三千大千世界所有微塵是爲多不。須菩(27)提言。彼微塵甚多。世尊。何以故。須菩提。是(28)諸微塵。如來説非微塵是名微塵。如來説世(29)界非世界是名世界。佛言。須菩提。於意云何。(1)可以三十二大人相見如來不。須菩提言。不(2)也世尊。何以故。如來説三十二大人相即是(3)非相。是名三十二大人相(4)論曰。云何成彼勝福。偈言
(24)
maṅ ba’i bye brag bstan phyir daṅ | khyad par dag kyaṅ bsgrub pa’i phyir ||sṅa ma daṅ ni phyi ma yis | bsod nams dpe ni yan bstan to ||
(24)
19. Sākyamuni did not receive by means of words any (instruction how to) realize the doctrine from the Buddha Dīpamkara. Therefore it is proved that in its realization there is nothing which was grasped or was expressed in words.But if it is so, how is it possible to say that the bodhisattva can partake of the Buddha fields (buddha-kṣetra) or be considered king of the Law? A reply to this question is contained in p. 27, l. 1.
(25)
dvayasya pātrīkaraṇān niṣyandatvamahatvataḥ |asaṃkleśasya hetutvād dhīnābhibhavanād api ||
(25)
兩成尊重故 由等流殊勝煩惱因性故 由劣亦勝故
(25)
尊重於二處 因習證大體彼因習煩惱 此降伏染福
(25)
此義云何。尊重於二處者。一者所説處。隨何(8)等處説此經。令生尊重奇特相故。二者能説(9)人。隨何等人能受持及説。以尊重經論故。非(10)七寶等。隨何處捨隨何人能捨。如是生敬重(11)故。此法門與一切諸佛如來證法作勝因故。(12)如經須菩提言世尊如來無所説法故。此義(13)云何。無有一法唯獨如來説。餘佛不説故。彼(14)珍寶布施福徳是染煩惱因。以能成就煩惱(15)事故。此因示現遠離煩惱因故。是故説地微(16)塵喩如經須菩提是諸微塵。如來説非微塵(17)是名微塵。如來説世界非世界是名世界故。(18)何故如是説。彼微塵非貪等煩惱體。以是義(19)故名爲地微塵故。彼世界非煩惱染因界。是(20)故説世界。此明何義。彼福徳是煩惱塵染因。(21)是故於外無記塵彼福徳善根爲近。何況此(22)福徳能成佛菩提故。及成就大丈夫相福徳(23)中勝故。是故受持演説此法門。能成佛菩提(24)勝彼福徳。何以故。彼相於佛菩提非相故。以(25)彼非法身故。是故説大丈夫相。以彼相故。此(26)受持及説福徳能成佛菩提。是故彼非勝故。(27)又彼福徳能降伏珍寶等福。何況此福故能(28)降伏是故。此福最近最勝。如是彼檀等福徳(29)中此福徳最如是成已(1)經曰。佛言須菩提。若有善男子善女人。以恒(2)河沙等身命布施。若復有人於此法門中。乃(3)至受持四句偈等。爲他人説其福甚多。無量(4)阿僧祇。爾時須菩提。聞説是經深解義趣。涕(5)涙悲泣捫涙而白佛言。希有婆伽婆。希有修(6)伽陀。佛説如是甚深法門。我從昔來所得慧(7)眼未曾得聞如是法門。何以故。須菩提。佛説(8)般若波羅蜜。即非般若波羅蜜。世尊。若復有(9)人得聞是經。信心清淨則生實相。當知是人(10)成就第一希有功徳。世尊。是實相者則是非(11)相。是故如來説名實相實相。世尊。我今得聞(12)如是法門。信解受持不足爲難。若當來世其(13)有衆生。得聞是法門信解受持。是人則爲第(14)一希有。何以故。此人無我相人相衆生相壽(15)者相。何以故。我相即是非相。人相衆生相壽(16)者相。即是非相。何以故。離一切諸相則名諸(17)佛。佛告須菩提。如是如是。若復有人得聞是(18)經。不驚不怖不畏。當知是人甚爲希有。何以(19)故。須菩提。如來説第一波羅蜜。非第一波羅(20)蜜。如來説第一波羅蜜者。彼無量諸佛亦説(21)波羅蜜。是名第一波羅蜜(22)論曰。自下經文重明彼福徳中此福轉勝。此(23)義云何。偈言
(25)
rnam gñis snod du ’gyur ba daṅ | rgyu mthun yin pas che ba daṅ ||kun nas ñon moṅs rgyur ’gyur daṅ | dma’ bas zil gyis gnon phyir ro ||
(25)
20. It is impossible to be a partaker of the Buddha fields, because they are a mere denomination which is the mental outflow of the Buddha; on account of their not having any material consistency (from the point of view of the absolute truth) and of the eminency which they imply, the arrangement (vyūha) of these fields is said to be essentially a non-arrangement (avyūha).Cittam should always be apratiṣṭhitam, mind should repose nowhere (p. 27, l. 5). The Buddha, king of the Law, cannot speak of himself as a Buddha, king of the Law, as if he had grasped the Law, just as the Sumeru cannot speak of itself as being the Sumeru (p. 27, l. 9 ff.).
(26)
tatphalaśreṣṭhaduḥkhatvād durlabhārthottamārthataḥ |jñeyāpāramitatvāc ca parāsādhāraṇatvataḥ ||
(26)
彼果勝苦故 難逢勝事故境岸非知故 於餘不共故
(26)
苦身勝於彼 希有及上義彼智岸難量 亦不同餘法
(26)
(26)
de yi ’bras mchog sdug bsṅal phyir | rñed dka’i phyir daṅ mchog phyir daṅ ||śes bya’i pha rol phyin med phyir | gźan daṅ thun moṅ ma yin phyir ||
(26)
21. Just as the Sumeru cannot grasp itself as being the king of mountains, in the same way no Buddha (in spite of his greatness) can grasp himself as being in the condition of fruition, saṃbhoga (because no activity of imaginative thought is admissible in either case). In fact it is astate characterized by the absence of any impure influx (āśrava) as well as of karmic forces (saṃskṛta, in so far as it does not depend on any external cause).[End of chapter 10]“This explains the statement of the sūtra that the self (ātmabhāva) is no existent thing (bhāva) and that this non existence (abhāva) is the real self (ātmabhāva), p. 27, l. 13·15. Now one may ask: The sūtra has already spoken of merit; how is it that it now comes back again to the same subject? (p. 27, l. 15 ff.).
(27)
gāḍhagaṃbhīrabhāvāc ca parasūtraviśiṣṭataḥ |mahāśuddhānvayatvāc ca puṇyāt puṇyaṃ viśiṣyate ||
(27)
是甚深性故 勝餘略詮故冑族高勝故 望福福殊勝
(27)
堅實解深義 勝餘修多羅大因及清淨 福中勝福徳
(27)
此二偈説何義。捐捨身命重於捨資生珍寶(29)等。彼如是捨無量身命。果報福徳此福徳勝(c1)彼福。何以故。彼捨身命苦身心故。何況爲法(2)捨故。念彼身苦。慧命須菩提尊重法故。悲泣(3)流涙。如經爾時須菩提聞説是經深解義趣(4)涕涙悲泣故。此法門希有。何以故。尊者須菩(5)提。雖有智眼昔來未曾得聞。是故希有如經(6)我從昔來所得慧眼。未曾得聞如是法門故。(7)又此法門第一。以説名般若波羅蜜故此云(8)何成以上義故。如經何以故須菩提佛説般若(9)波羅蜜。即非般若波羅蜜故。何故如是説彼(10)智岸故。彼智岸無人能量。是故非波羅蜜又(11)此法門不同。何以故。此中有實相故。餘者非(12)實相。除佛法餘處無實故。以彼處未曾有未(13)曾生信。以是義故。如經世尊若復有人得聞(14)是經。信心清淨則生實相。當知是人成就第(15)一希有功徳故。又此法門堅實深妙。何以故。(16)受持此經思量修習。不起我等相故。又不起(17)我等相者。示可取境界不倒相故。我等相即(18)非相者。示能取境界不倒相故。此二明我空(19)法空無我智故。如是次第如經何以故。此人(20)無我相人相衆生相壽者相。何以故。我相即(21)是非相。人相衆生相壽者相即是非相。何以(22)故。離此一切諸相則名諸佛故。如來爲須菩(23)提説如是義。驚者謂非處生懼是故名驚。以(24)可訶故。如非正道行故。怖者心體怖故。以起(25)不能斷疑心故。畏者一向怖故。其心畢竟驚(26)怖墮故遠離彼處。如經不驚不怖不畏故。又(27)此法門勝餘修多羅如經。何以故。須菩提如(28)來説第一波羅蜜非第一波羅蜜故。又此法。(29)門名爲大因。如經如來説第一波羅蜜者故(a1)又此法門名爲清淨。以無量佛説故。如經彼(2)無量諸佛亦説波羅蜜。是名第一波羅蜜故。(3)彼珍寶檀等無如是功徳。是故彼福徳中此(4)福爲勝。如是成已(5)論曰。自下經文復爲斷疑。云何疑。向説彼(6)身苦以彼捨身苦身果報而彼福是劣。若爾(7)依此法門受持演説。諸菩薩行苦行。彼苦行(8)亦是苦果。云何於此法門不成苦果。爲斷此(9)疑故(10)經曰。須菩提如來説忍辱波羅蜜。即非忍辱(11)波羅蜜。何以故。須菩提。如我昔爲歌利王割(12)截身體。我於爾時無我相無人相。無衆生(13)相無壽者相。無相亦非無相。何以故。須菩提。(14)我於往昔節節支解時。若有我相人相衆生(15)相壽者相應生瞋恨。須菩提。又念過去。於五。(16)百世作忍辱仙人。於爾所世無我相*無人相(17)*無衆生相無壽者相。是故須菩提。菩薩應離(18)一切相發阿耨多羅三藐三菩提心。何以故。(19)若心有住則爲非住。不應住色生心。不應住(20)聲香味觸法生心。應生無所住心。是故佛説(21)菩薩心不住色布施。須菩提。菩薩爲利益一(22)切衆生。應如是布施。須菩提言。世尊。一切衆(23)生相即是非相。何以故。如來説一切衆生即(24)非衆生(25)論曰。此示何義。偈言
(27)
śin tu zab pa’i raṅ bźin phyir | mdo sde gźan las khyad źugs phyir ||rgyu ni dag cin phal chen phyir | bsod nams las ni bsod nams ’phags ||
(27)
22. (The sūtra returns again to the subject of merit) in order to make manifest the varieties in its greatness and in order to prove its peculiarity. Therefore a second instruction (so that faith in it may increase) is here given by means of an example in order to show that the foIlowing exceeds the previous one. (With a different emphasis, in so far as in the previous case the Buddha has spoken of merits which are not a support of illumination and now of a merit which can support illumination). Which is this gift that can he a support to illumination, that is which is the supreme merit? The reply is given in the foIlowing stanzas.[End of chapter 11]
(28)
sahiṣṇutā ca caryāyāṃ duṣkarāyāṃ śubhā yataḥ |tadguṇāparimāṇatvād agrārthena nirucyate ||
(28)
彼行堪忍時 雖苦行善故彼徳難量故 由斯名勝事
(28)
能忍於苦行 以苦行有善彼福不可量 如是最勝義
(28)
(28)
’di ltar dka’ ba spyod pa la | ci mi sñam pa dge phyir daṅ ||de yi yon tan tshad med pas | mchog gi don du brjod pa yin ||
(28)
23-25. The gift of the Law is superior to any other gift, becausea) it makes worthy the two (viz. the place where the doctrine has been given i. e. preached pṛthivī-pradeśa, p. 28, l. 10, and the giver of it, i.e, the preacher of the doctrine, p. 28, l. 14 dhārayiṣyanti... saṃprakāśayiṣyanti;[End of chapter 12]b) the fruits which are its outflow are very great, (because in fact no dharma has ever been preached, p. 29, l. 3 ff.);c) it is the cause of no defilement 1); (as the gift of other things, p. 29, l. 6 ff., rather it stops all sorts of defilements);d) it surpasses the inferior merit (in so far as its aim is the realization of supreme illumination and not the obtainment of the signs of the mahāpuruṣa. (This would he an erroneous assumption since the dharmakāya, as has been said before, is devoid of any sign, p. 29, l. 13 ff.);e) from the practice of those lower merits one gets as a fruit higher pains (in so far as the practice of liberality, as a result, causes enjoyment to be experienced by one’s own body in a future life, and that body is essentially sorrow, while the merit derived from the gift of the Law makes us abandon numberless bodies) p. 29, l. 19 ff;[End of chapter 13]f) its ends are difficult to he obtained (referring to na mayā śruta-pūrvaḥ said by Subhūti p. 30, l. 8): and its meaning is the highest (referring to: prajñāpāramitā saivāpāramitā p. 31, l. 6 ff.);g) the limits to its contents cannot be known;h) its teachings are not common to those of the other sects (viz. the bhūtsaṃjñā p. 30, l. 10, is peculiar only to this doctrine);i) it is profound and deep; (in so far as no wrong opinion, viparyāsa, is found in this doctrine concerning the existence either of the percipient or of things to he perceived, nātma-saṃjñā . .. pravartiṣyate. .. p. 30, l. 19 ff.; but in spite of this realization of non-existence, the bodhisattva does not feel any mental fear, which is of three kinds: nottrasiṣyanti, no saṃtrasiṣyanti, na saṃtrasam āpatsyante p. 31, l. 5);k) it is superior to the sūtras of the other schools (paraṃparamiteyam p. 31, l. 6);l) it has a great and pure connection (with the lineage) of the Buddhas (yām ca... tathāgata bhāṣante p. 31, l. 7-8).Therefore the merit derived from the understanding and practice of the gnosis distinguishes itself from and it is far superior to that derived from the mere practice of good actions etc.(But though the practice of the gnosis is painful, nevertheless it cannot be said to be a cause of pain; this point is made clear in the two following stanzas:)
(29)
ātmavyāpādasaṃjñāyā abhāvād duḥkhatā na ca |sasukhā karuṇābhāvāc caryāduḥkhaphalā tataḥ ||
(29)
由無恚怒情 不名爲苦性有安樂大悲 行時非苦果
(29)
離我及恚相 實無於苦惱共樂有慈悲 如是苦行果
(29)
此二偈説何義。雖此苦行同於苦果。而此苦(2)行不疲惓。以有羼提波羅蜜名爲第一故。彼(3)岸有二種義。一者波羅蜜清淨善根體。二者(4)彼岸功徳不可量。如經即非波羅蜜故。非波(5)羅蜜者。無人知彼功徳岸故。言非波羅蜜。是(6)故爲得第一法。此苦行勝彼捨身。何況離我(7)相瞋恚相故。又此行無苦。不但無苦。及有樂(8)以有慈悲故。如經我於爾時無我相。乃至無(9)相亦非無相故。此明慈悲心相應故如是説。(10)若有菩薩不離我相等。彼菩薩見苦行苦。亦(11)欲捨菩提心。爲彼故説如經。是故須菩提。菩(12)薩應離一切相等。此明何義。未生第一菩提(13)心者。有如是過。爲防此過。偈言
(29)
bdag tu ’dzin daṅ gnod sems kyi | ’du śes med phyir sdug bsṅal med ||spyod pa sdug bsṅal ’bras bu can | sñiṅ rje yod phyir bde daṅ ldan ||
(29)
(30)
cittātyāgābhinirhāre yatnaḥ kāryo dṛḍho yataḥ |kṣāntipāramitāprāptau tatprāyogika eva ca ||
(30)
生心因不捨 是故應堅求謂是得忍邊 及此心方便
(30)
爲不捨心起 修行及堅固爲忍波羅蜜 習彼能學心
(30)
此義云何。爲何等心起行相而修行。爲何等(17)心不捨相。偈言爲忍波羅蜜習彼能學心故。(18)又第一義心者。已入初地得羼提波羅蜜故。(19)此名不住心。如經是故須菩提。菩薩應離一(20)切相。發阿耨多羅三藐三菩提心故。何以故。(21)示不住生心義故。若心住於色等法彼心不(22)住佛菩提。此明不住心行於布施。此經文説(23)不住心起行方便。以檀波羅蜜攝六波羅蜜(24)故。云何爲利益衆生修行。而不名住於衆生(25)事。爲斷此疑。如經須菩提菩薩爲利益一切(26)衆生。應如是布施故。此明何義。偈言
(30)
de phyir sems ni mi btaṅ bar | sgrub la ’bad ciṅ brtan par bya ||bzod pa’i pha rol phyin thob daṅ | de la sbyor las byuṅ ba ñid ||
(30)
(31)
pratipattiś ca sattvārthā vijñeyā hetubhāvataḥ |sattvavastunimittāt tu vijñeyā parivarjitā ||
(31)
應知正行者 是利生因故於有情事相 應知遍除遣
(31)
修行利衆生 如是因當識衆生及事相 遠離亦應知
(31)
此義云何。利益是因體故。彼修行利益衆生。(1)非取衆生相事故。何者是衆生事。偈言
(31)
rgyu yi tshul gyis bsgrub pa ni | sems can don du śes par bya ||sems can dṅos po mtshan ma ni | yoṅs su spaṅ bar śes par bya ||
(31)
26-27. The capacity to endure the difficult practice of the path leading to illumination is designated as being excellent (parama-pāramitā p. 31,1. 8) because;a) it is propitious (consubstantiated with the perfections)b) it is impossible to enumerate the merits deriving from it;c) moreover, since in this doctrine there is no place either for the notion of a self (which can be offended) or for that of an offence, there is in it no possibility of admitting a condition of suffering (p. 31, l. 11 ff.);d) this practice of the path to illumination is (in fact) accompanied by satisfaction, because, being compassion, it does not cause sorrow as fruit.It may be that somebody, on account of the sufferings implicit in the practice of the six perfections, gives up the vow of realizing the supreme illumination. In order to clear up this doubt the sūtra states that one should abandon all sorts of notions etc. (sarvasaṃjñāṃ vivarjayitvā etc. p. 31 last line p. 32 first line), because only a man who has not formulated that vow can be deterred by the sufferings of that practice, not he who has formulated the vow and, therefore, has implicitly abandoned all notions and is apratiṣṭhitacitta, viz. with mind resting nowhere. Such is the purpose of the following stanza.
(32)
nāmaskandhāś ca tadvastu tatsaṃjñāpagamāj jine |tadabhāvo hi buddhānāṃ tattvadarśanayogataḥ ||
(32)
彼事謂名聚 最勝除其想諸世尊無比 由眞見相應
(32)
假名及陰事 如來離彼相諸佛無彼二 以見實法故
(32)
此説何義。名相衆生及彼陰事故。云何彼修(5)行遠離衆生事相。即彼名相相非相。以無(6)彼實體故。以是義故。衆生即非衆生。以何等(7)法。謂五陰名衆生。彼五陰無衆生體。以無實(8)故。如是明法無我人無我。何以故。一切諸佛(9)如來。遠離一切相故。此句明彼二相不實。偈(10)言如來離彼相諸佛無彼二以見實法故。此(11)説何義。若彼二實有者。諸佛如來應有彼二(12)相。何以故。諸佛如來實見故(13)經曰。須菩提。如來是眞語者實語者。如語者(14)不異語者。須菩提。如來所得法所説法。無實(15)無妄語(16)論曰。此中有疑於證果中無道。云何彼於果(17)能作因。爲斷此疑。如經須菩提如來是眞語(18)者實語者如語者不異語者故。此四句説何(19)等義偈言
(32)
de dṅos bźin daṅ phun po yin | saṅs rgyas yaṅ dag gzigs ldan pas ||rgyal ba de yi ’du śes daṅ | bral ba’i phyir na de gñis med ||
(32)
(33)
phalāpratiṣṭhito mārgas tatphalasyāpi kāraṇam |buddhānāṃ bhūtavāditvāt tac ca jñeyaṃ caturvidham ||
(33)
果不住因位 是得彼果因世尊實語故 應知有四種
(33)
果雖不住道 而道能爲因以諸佛實語 彼智有四種
(33)
此義云何。彼境界有四種。是故如來有四種(23)實語。云何四種。偈言
(33)
’bras bu la ni mi gnas lam | de yi ’bras bu ’thob rgyu yin ||saṅs rgyas yaṅ dag gsuṅ ba’i phyir | de yaṅ rnam bźir śes par bya ||
(33)
28. In fact a strong effort is to be made in the effectuation of not renouncing the vow of reaching illumination; so also in the mastery of the perfection of patience (kṣāntiparamitā) and in the means instrumental to that (viz. realization of illumination, the perfection of liberality, etc. all depending on the mind not resting anywhere). This statement of the mind reposing nowhere (apratiṣṭhitacitta) as a fundamental quality of the bodhisattva, seems to be contradicted by what the sūtra states, viz. that the vow of attaining illumination and the practice of the pāramitās should be followed in order to benefit beings. Therefore the mind should at least repose on the thought that beings exist.The stanza 29 solves this doubt.
(34)
pratijñā hīnayānasya mahāyānasya deśanā |sarvavyākaraṇānāṃ ca na visaṃvādinī yataḥ ||
(34)
立要説下乘 及説大乘義由諸授記事 皆無有差別
(34)
實智及小乘 説摩訶衍法及一切授記 以不虚説故
(34)
此明何義。以如來實智不妄説。佛菩提及小(27)乘大乘*授記之事皆不妄説。以是四境故。次(28)第説四語。如經須菩提如來是眞語者實語者(29)如語者不異語者故。不妄説小乘者。説小乘(1)苦諦等唯是諦故。不妄説大乘者。説法無我(2)眞如故。眞如者即是眞如故。不妄説*授記(3)者。一切過去未來現在*授記故。如彼義如是(4)説不顛倒故。經復言須菩提如來所得法所(5)説法無實無妄語者。何故如是説。偈言
(34)
dam bcas theg pa dman pa daṅ | theg pa chen po ston pa daṅ ||luṅ bstan thams cad bstan pa rnams | slu bar byed pa bźin phyir ro ||
(34)
29. The practice of the proper behaviour (pratipatti) is to he understood as being useful to the creatures in so far as it is the cause of (their henefit); but it should also he understood as being devoid of any assumption implying that those creatures have the character of real things, sarva-sattvānām arthāya 32, l. 9).But what is then the real character of the beings?
(35)
aprāpter ānukulyāc ca na satyā na mṛṣā matā |yathārutaniveśasya pratipakṣeṇa deśanā ||
(35)
不得彼順故 是非實非妄如言而執者 對彼故宣説
(35)
隨順彼實智 説不實不虚如聞聲取證 對治如是説
(35)
此義云何。諸佛所説法。此法不能得彼法。而(9)隨順義故。以所説法不能得彼證法。何以故。(10)如所聞聲無如是義故。是故無實。以此所説(11)法隨順彼證法。是故無妄語。若爾何故説。如(12)來所得法所説法。以依字句説故。何故如來(13)前説如來是眞語者。復言所説法無實無妄(14)語。偈言如聞聲取證對治如是説故(15)經曰須菩提。譬如有人入闇則無所見。若菩(16)薩心住於事而行布施。亦復如是。須菩提。譬(17)如人有目。夜分已盡日光明照見種種色。若(18)菩薩不住於事。行於布施亦復如是(19)論曰。復有疑。若聖人以無爲眞如法得名。彼(20)眞如一切時一切處有。云何不住心。得佛菩(21)提則非不住。若一切時一切處實有眞如。何(22)故有人能得有不得者。爲斷此疑故。説入闇(23)等喩。此明何義。偈言
(35)
ṅes thob bźin zin mthun pa’i phyir | bden pa med ciṅ rdzun med bźed ||sgra bźin du ni źen pa yi | gnen po ñid du bstan pa yin ||
(35)
30. That thing which we call a creature (in reality is nothing but) a denomination (applied to the synthesis of) some components (skandha); (therefore it is a non-notion, asaṃjñā p. 32, l. 10 and devoid of any essence). These two notions viz. ātman, as well as dharma, completely disappear in the Victorious One; therefore (creatures and dharmas as well), are not existent for the Buddhas in so far as these are possessed of the vision of reality.But if that is really so and no practice really exists, then does this mean that there is no cause of the fruit to he realized, viz. the illumination or, in other words, that the path is no cause of the fruit? Certainly not, because the sūtra says: bhūtavādī etc. p. 32, l. 11).
(36)
x x x x x x x x x x x x x .alābhatā |ajñānāt sapratiṣṭhena jñānād anyena lābhatā ||
(36)
常時諸處有 於眞性不獲由無知有住 智無住得眞
(36)
時及處實有 而不得眞如無智以住法 餘者有智得
(36)
此義云何。一切時者。謂過現未來。一切處者。(27)謂三世。衆生實有眞如法何故不得。偈言無(28)智以住法故。彼無智以心住法故。此復何義。(29)不清淨故。以有智者心不住法。是故能得。以(1)是義故。諸佛如來。清淨眞如得名。是故住心(2)不得佛菩提。又此譬喩明於何義。偈言
(36)
de bźin ñid ni rtag tu yan | kun la yod bźin mi ’thob pa ||gnas daṅ bcas pas ma śes phyir | gcig śes kyis ni śes phyir ’thob ||
(36)
31. The path does not repose on the notion of its being a cause of a fruit consisting in Buddhahood (which would then he produced: saṃskṛta), but it is nevertheless the instrumental cause of its fruit; because the Buddhas (who proclaimed this doctrine) tell always the truth. This statement of truth by them is fourfold:
(37)
tamaḥprakāśam ajñānaṃ jñānam ālokavan matam |pratipakṣavipakṣasya lābhahānyāmukhatvataḥ ||
(37)
無智猶如闇 當閑智若明能對及所治 得失現前故
(37)
闇明愚無智 明者如有智對治及對法 得滅法如是
(37)
此義云何。彼闇明喩者。相似法故。闇者示現(6)無智。日光明者。示現有智。有目者明何義。偈(7)言對*治及對法得滅法。如是故如是次第。又(8)有目者。如能對治法故。夜分已盡者。如所(9)治暗法盡故。日光明照者。如能治法現前故。(10)如經須菩提譬如有人入暗則無所見如是等(11)故(12)經曰。復次須菩提。若有善男子善女人。能於(13)此法門受持讀誦修行。則爲如來以佛智慧(14)悉知是人。悉見是人。悉覺是人。皆得成就無(15)量無邊功徳聚。須菩提。若有善男子善女人。(16)初日分以恒河沙等身布施。中日分復以恒(17)河沙等身布施。後日分復以恒河沙等身布(18)施。如是捨恒河沙等無量身。如是百千萬億(19)那由他劫以身布施。若復有人聞此法門。信(20)心不謗。其福勝彼無量阿僧祇。何況書寫受(21)持讀誦修行爲人廣説(22)論曰。自下復説何義。偈言
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mi śes pa ni mun pa ’dra | śes pa snaṅ ba ’dra bar bźed ||gñen po daṅ ni mi mthun phyogs | thob daṅ ñams par ’gyur phyir ro ||
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32. Viz.a) the promise (to become a Buddha),b, c) the teaching contained in the Lesser and the teaching contained in the Greater Vehicle,d) that contained in prophecies delivered by the Buddha which never turn out to he false.This explains the fourfold expression of the sūtra: bhūtavādī, satyavādī, tathāvādī, ananyathāvādī.But how is it possible to say that the very teaching of the Tathāgata is such that it cannot he said to he either true (satyam) or false (mṛṣā)? (p. 32, l. 14).
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yādṛśyā pratipattyā x x x x x x x x x |yat karmikā ca sā dharme pratipattis tad ucyate ||
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由如是正行 獲如是福量於法正行者 業用今當説
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於何法修行 得何等福徳復成就何業 如是説修行
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於何法修行者。示現彼行。云何示現。偈言
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chos la sgrub pa ji lta bus | bsod nams ci ’dra ’thob pa daṅ ||las ni gaṅ daṅ ldan pa de | sgrub pa yin te de brjod do ||
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33. Therefore since it does not reach anything (as a real existent thing, in so far as there is nothing which exists behind these words), this teaching is not true; it cannot either he said to he untrue, in so far as it is in agreement with (the fact that illumination is reached); it is taught so as to serve as a counteragent to the inclination of taking words according to their literal meaning (as if they corresponded to an entity). (Therefore there is no contradiction when the sūtra says: bhūtavādī tathāgata, and afterwards adds: na satyam, na mṛṣā).Now a doubt is possible; if the saints are, as has been told, asaṃskrta-prabhāvitā (where asaṃskṛta = tathatā), then, how is it that Buddhahood is realized by a mind reposing nowhere (apratiṣṭhitacitta)? When illumination is realized a mind should repose somewhere (pratiṣṭhitacitta), Moreover, if this illumination is eternal and all pervading, then, how is it that sometimes it may he realized and sometimes not?
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vyañjane trividhā dharmadharatve śrutavistare |arthasya parato ’dhyātmam āptau śravaṇacintanāt ||
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於人有三種 受持聞廣説義得由從1他 及已聞思故
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名字三種法 受持聞廣説修從他及内 得聞是修智
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此説何義。於彼名字得成聞慧。此有三種。一(29)者受二者持三者讀誦。此云何知。偈言受持(c1)聞廣説故。受持修行依總持法故。讀誦修行(2)依聞慧廣故。廣多讀習亦名聞慧。此是名字(3)中三種修行。如經復次須菩提若有善男子(4)善女人。能於此法門受持讀誦故。彼修行云(5)何得。偈言修從他及内得聞是修智故。此義(6)云何。爲修得相。於他及自身。云何於他及自(7)身。謂聞及修如是次第。從他聞法内自思惟(8)爲得修行故。向説名字及以修行。此爲自身。(9)偈言
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yi ge la ni rnam gsum ste | chos ’dzin pa daṅ rgyas thos la ||don ni gźan la bdag ñid kyis | mñan daṅ bsam las chub par ’gyur ||
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34. Though the absolute (tathatā) is always and everywhere, still it cannot he realized by those who, on account of ignorance, have their mind reposing somewhere (pratiṣṭhita) but, on the contrary, it is realized by the others whose mind, on account of right knowledge, reposes nowhere (apratiṣṭhita).(This is further explained by an example p. 32,1.14 ff.).
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x x x x x x x x x x x x paripācane |vastukālamahatvena puṇyāt puṇyaṃ viśiṣyate ||
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此1謂熟内已 餘成他有情由事時大性 望福福殊勝
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此爲自淳熟 餘者化衆生以事及時大 福中勝福徳
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此義云何。彼名字聞慧修行爲自身淳熟故。(13)餘者化衆生廣説法故。得何等福徳者。示現(14)勝挍量福徳故。偈言以事及時大福中勝福(15)徳故。此捨身福徳勝於前捨身福徳。云何勝(16)以事勝故。以時大故。即一日時多捨身故。復(17)多時故。如經須菩提若善男子善女人。初日(18)分以恒河沙等身布施。乃至若復有人聞此(19)法門信心不謗。其福勝彼無量阿僧祇。何況(20)書寫受持讀誦修行。爲人廣説故(21)經曰。須菩提。以要言之。是經有不可思議不(22)可稱量無邊功徳。此法門如來爲發大乘者(23)説。爲發最上乘者説。若有人能受持讀誦修(24)行此經廣爲人説。如來悉知是人悉見是人。(25)皆成就不可思議不可稱無有邊無量功徳(26)聚。如是人等。則爲荷擔如來阿耨多羅三藐(27)三菩提。何以故。須菩提。若樂小法者。則於此(28)經不能受持讀誦修行爲人解説。若有我見(29)衆生見人見壽者見。於此法門能受持讀誦(1)修行爲人解説者。無有是處。須菩提。在在處(2)處若有此經。一切世間天人阿修羅所應供(3)養。當知此處則爲是塔。皆應恭敬作禮圍繞。(4)以諸花香而散其處。復次須菩提。若善男子(5)善女人。受持讀誦此經爲人輕賤。何以故。是(6)人先世罪業應墮惡道。以今世人輕賤故。先(7)世罪業則爲消滅。當得阿耨多羅三藐三菩(8)提。須菩提。我念過去無量阿僧祇阿僧祇劫。(9)於然燈佛前得値八十四億那由他百千萬諸(10)佛。我皆親承供養無空過者。須菩提。如是(11)無量諸佛。我皆親承供養無空過者。若復有(12)人於後世末世。能受持讀誦修行此經所得(13)功徳。我所供養諸佛功徳。於彼百分不及一。(14)千萬億分乃至算數譬喩所不能及。須菩提。(15)若有善男子善女人。於後世末世。有受持讀(16)誦修行此經。所得功徳若我具説者。或有人(17)聞心則狂亂疑惑不信。須菩提。當知是法門(18)不可思議。果報亦不可思議(19)論曰。復成就何業修行者。今顯彼修行業。偈(20)言
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’di ni bdag smin byed gźan ni | sems can yoṅs su smin byed yin ||dṅos daṅ dus ni che ba’i phyir | bsod nams las ni bsod nams ’phags ||
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35. Ignorance is like darkness, knowledge is said .to be like light. The counteragent (of erroneous assumptions, here the example of the sun destroying darkness) and its opposite (here the example of darkness) are respectively conducive to realization of truth and to loss of it.
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agocaratvaṃ kaivalyaṃ mahātmāśritatā tathā |durlabhaśravatā caiva dhātupuṣṭir anuttarā ||
(41)
非境性獨性 能依是大人及難可得聞 無上因増長
(41)
非餘者境界 唯依大人説及希聞信法 滿足無上界
(41)
(41)
spyod yul bźin daṅ ma ’dres daṅ | de bźin che ba ñid la hrten ||thos pa rñed par dka’ ba daṅ | khams kyaṅ rgyas byed bla na med ||
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36. Now it is told what kind of merit is derived from such and such practice of a right behaviour and of what kind of (karmic) effects this practice of a right behaviour in the Law consists.
(42)
x x x x x x x x x x x pātratāśraye |śodhanāvaraṇānāṃ ca kṣiprābhijñātvam eva ca ||
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若但持正法 所依處成器蠲除諸業障 速獲智通性
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受持眞妙法 尊重身得福及遠離諸障 復能速證法
(42)
(42)
dam pa’i chos ni ’dzin pa daṅ | gnas kyaṅ snod du bya ba daṅ ||sgrib pa rnams kyaṅ ’dag pa daṅ | mṅon par śes pa myur ha daṅ ||
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37. Concerning the right behaviour, as regards the doctrine consisting of sentences (expounded in the sūtra), it can be of three kinds: one may grasp the doctrine, one may he learned in it, one spreads it explaining it to others (udgrahiṣyati, dhārayiṣyati, vācayiṣyati) p. 32, l. 21. As regards the meaning, it can he obtained either from another or by oneself, viz. by listening to it or meditating on it,
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vicitralokasaṃpattivipākaḥ sumahānn api |karmāṇi etāni dharme pratipatter matāni x ||
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世妙事圓滿 異熟極尊貴於此法修行 應知獲斯業
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成種種勢力 得大妙果報如是等勝業 於法修行知
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此三行偈。説何等義。有不可思議者。示不可(28)思議境界故。不可稱量者。謂唯獨大人不共(29)聲聞等。以爲住第一大乘衆生説故。此示依(b1)止大人故。又説大乘者。最妙大乘修行勝故。(2)以信小乘等則不能聞此。示希聞而能信法(3)故。如經以要言之。是經有不可思議不可稱(4)量無邊功徳。如來爲發大乘者説。爲發最上(5)乘者説故。希聞者。謂不可思議等文句。得不(6)可思議等福徳顯滿足性故。以福徳善根滿(7)足故。此説不可思議等文句。如經皆成就不(8)可思議不可稱無有邊無量功徳聚故。如是(9)人等則。爲荷擔如來阿耨多羅三藐三菩提(10)者。示現受持眞妙法故。受持法者。即是荷擔(11)大菩提。如經如是人等則爲荷擔如來阿耨(12)多羅三藐三菩提故。在在處處供養者。當知(13)是人必定成就無量功徳。如經在在處處若(14)有此經一切世間天人阿修羅所應供養。當(15)知此處則爲是塔。皆應恭敬作禮。圍繞以諸(16)花香而散其處故。受持讀誦此經爲人輕賤(17)者。示現遠離一切諸障故。何故爲人輕賤而(18)離諸障。以有大功徳故。如經是人先世罪業(19)則爲消滅故。於然燈佛前供養諸佛功徳。於(20)後末世受持此法門功徳福多於彼者。此示(21)速證菩提法故。以多福徳莊嚴速疾滿足故。(22)如經若復有人於後世末世。能受持讀誦修(23)行此經所得功徳。我所供養諸佛功徳。於彼(24)百分不及一。千萬億分乃至算數譬喩所不(25)能及故。當知。是法門不可思議。果報亦不可(26)思議者。此明何義。偈言。成種種勢力。得大妙(27)果報故。所謂攝受四天王釋提桓因梵天王(28)等。成就勢力故。若聞此事其心迷亂者。以彼(29)果報不可思議甚爲勝妙。示非思量智境界(c1)故。住彼修行中成如是等功徳。是故彼修行(2)等業。應知。如經當知是法門不可思議。果報(3)亦不可思議故(4)經曰。爾時須菩提白佛言。世尊。云何菩薩發(5)阿耨多羅三藐三菩提心。云何住。云何修行。(6)云何降伏其心。佛告須菩提。菩薩發阿耨多(7)羅三藐三菩提心者。當生如是心。我應滅度(8)一切衆生。令入無餘涅槃界。如是滅度一切(9)衆生已。而無一衆生實滅度者。何以故須菩(10)提。若菩薩有衆生相人相壽者相。則非菩薩。(11)何以故。須菩提。實無有法名爲菩薩發阿耨(12)多羅三藐三菩提心者故(13)論曰。何故前説三種修行。今復重説此有何(14)勝。偈言
(43)
’jig rten ’byor pa sna tshogs kyi | rnam sbźin śin tu che ba ste ||’di dag chos la sgrub ba yi | las rnams yin par rab tu bstan ||
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38. This behaviour (viz. intended to grasp the Law) causes the spiritual ripeness of oneself; the other (viz. to explain it to others) causes the spiritual ripeness of the other creatures (cf. p. 33, l. 3). Therefore one kind of merit is superior to the other on account of its intrinsic greatness, as well as of the great time it requires to be accumulated.[End of chapter 14](In stanza 36 mention was made of the effects connected with this practice, of the right behaviour (pratipatti).Now one may ask which are these effects connected with the Law? They are explained in the following three stanzas.
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x x x x x x x x x bodhisattvakalpanā |cittāvaraṇam ākhyātaṃ yac cittam apratiṣṭhitaṃ ||
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由自身行時 將已爲菩薩説名爲心障 違於無住心
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於内心修行 存我爲菩薩此即障於心 違於不住道
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此義云何。若菩薩於自身三種修行。生如是(18)心。我住於菩薩大乘。我如是修行。我如是降(19)伏其心。菩薩生此分別。則障於菩提行。偈言。(20)於内心修行存我爲菩薩。此即障於心故。障(21)何等心。偈言。違於不住道故。如經何以故。須(22)菩提。實無有法名爲菩薩發阿耨多羅三藐(23)三菩提心者故(24)經曰。須菩提。於意云何。如來於然燈佛所。(25)有法得阿耨多羅三藐三菩提不。須菩提白(26)佛言。不也世尊。如我解佛所説義。佛於然燈(27)佛所。無有法得阿耨多羅三藐三菩提。佛言。(28)如是如是。須菩提。實無有法如來於然燈佛(29)所。得阿耨多羅三藐三菩提。須菩提。若有法(a1)如來得阿耨多羅三藐三菩提者。然燈佛則(2)不與我授記。汝於來世當得作佛。號釋迦牟(3)尼。以實無有法得阿耨多羅三藐三菩提。是(4)故然燈佛與我*授記。作如是言。摩那婆。汝(5)於來世當得作佛。號釋迦牟尼。何以故。須菩(6)提言。如來者即實眞如。須菩提。若有人言。如(7)來得阿耨多羅三藐三菩提者。是人不實語。(8)須菩提。實無有法佛得阿耨多羅三藐三菩(9)提。須菩提如來所得阿耨多羅三藐三菩提。(10)於是中不實不妄語。是故如來説一切法皆(11)是佛法。須菩提。所言一切法一切法者。即非(12)一切法。是故名一切法(13)論曰。此中有疑。若無菩薩云何釋迦如來於(14)然燈佛所。行菩薩行。爲斷此疑。如經須菩提。(15)於意云何。如來於然燈佛所。有法得阿耨多(16)羅三藐三菩提不。不也世尊。如是等。此明何(17)義偈言
(44)
sgrub pa so so bdag raṅ la | byaṅ chub sems dpar rtog pa yin ||mi gnas sems ni gaṅ yin pa’i | sems kyi sgrib pa yin par bstan ||
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39. a) The character of not being accessible (to common people, acintya p. 33, l. 14),b) the uniqueness, (in so far as it is not common to śrāvakas, atulyo, ibid.),c) its being resorted to by great men, viz. those who have embraced the great vehicle, agrayāna-saṃprasthitānām p. 33, l. 15-16),d) difficulty to he heard, na hi sakyam śrotum p. 34, l. 5,e) the capacity to develop to the utmost (pure) elements (viz, the meritorious tendencies) up to the extreme, acintyena... puṇyaskandhena p. 34,1. nābodhisattvapratijñaih... dhārayitum, p.34, 1.6-7.
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paścādvyākaraṇān no ca caryā dīpaṃkare parā |bodhis tac caryayā tulyā na sa x x x x x x ||
(45)
授後時記故 然燈行非勝菩薩彼行同 非實由因造
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以後時授記 然燈行非上菩提彼行等 非實有爲相
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此義云何。於然燈佛時。非第一菩薩行。何以(21)故。我於彼時所修諸行。無有一法得阿耨多(22)羅三藐三菩提。若我於彼佛所。已證菩提。則(23)後時諸佛不授我記。是故我於彼時行未成(24)佛故。偈言。以後時授記然燈行非上故。若無(25)菩提即無諸佛如來。有如是謗。謂一向無諸(26)佛。爲斷此疑。如經何以故。須菩提言。如來(27)者即實眞如故。實者非顛倒義故。眞如者不(28)異不變故。須菩提若有人言。如來得阿耨多(29)羅三藐三菩提者。此示何義。偈言。菩提彼(1)行等故。此義云何。彼菩薩行若人言有實者(2)此則虚妄。如是如來得阿耨多羅三藐三菩(3)提。若人言得者。此亦虚妄故。言菩提彼行等(4)故。若如是有人謗言。如來不得阿耨多羅三(5)藐三菩提。爲斷此疑。如經須菩提。如來所得(6)阿耨多羅三藐三菩提法。不實不妄語故。此(7)義云何。以如來得彼菩提故。偈言。非實有爲(8)相故。有爲相者。謂五陰相。彼菩提法無色等(9)相故。此復云何。偈言
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phyi nas kyaṅ ni luṅ bstan phyir | mar me mdzad las spyod mchog bźin ||byaṅ chub de yi spyod daṅ ’dra | byas pa’i mtshan ñid kyis mi bden ||
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40. f) the capacity of grasping (exactly) the supreme Law, g) the capacity of purifying the place where the Law was preached, a place worthy of worship, api tu khalu... bhaviṣyanti p. 34, I. 9-12.[End of chapter 15] h) the capacity of clearing away ill impurities, yāni ca teṣām p. 34, l. 17-19; i) the quick realization of the mystic knowledge (abhijñā), ahhijānāmy aham p. 34, l. 20 ff.
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x x x x x x x x na mṛṣā paridīpitā |dharmās tato buddhadharmāḥ sarve ’bhāvasvalakṣaṇāḥ ||
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無彼相爲相 故顯非是妄由法是佛法 皆非有爲相
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彼即非相相 以不虚妄説是法諸佛法 一切自體相
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此義云何。彼即於色等非相。無色等相故。(13)彼即菩提相故。是故偈言。彼即非相相。以(14)不虚妄説故。是故如來説一切法佛法如是(15)等。此義云何。以如來得如是法。偈言。是法(16)諸佛法一切自體相故。自體相者。非體自體(17)故。此明何義。一切法眞如體故。彼法如來所(18)證。是故言一切法佛法。彼處色等相不住(19)故。彼一切色等諸法非法。如是諸法非法。即(20)是諸法法以無彼法相。常不住持彼法相故」(21)經曰。須菩提。譬如有人其身妙大。須菩提言。(22)世尊。如來説人身妙大則非大身。是故如來(23)説名大身(24)論曰。大身譬喩示現何義。偈言
(46)
de’i mtshan med pa’i mtshan ñid kyis | rdzun pa med ces yoṅs su bstan ||de phyir chos rnams saṅs rgyas chos | thams cad dṅos med raṅ mtshan ñid ||
(46)
41. k) a great ripeness of the perfections to he experi:nced in the various worlds, sacet punaḥ, Subhūte, teṣām... pratikāṃkṣitavyaḥ p. 35, 1.12:17; all these are said to he the effects of the behaviour in the Law.[End of chapter 16]How is it that on this very subject Subhūti puts in another question, though the Buddha has already stated that there are three kinds of right behaviour? P. 35.
(47)
dharmakāyena buddhas tu mataḥ saḥ puruṣopamaḥ |nirāvaraṇato x x x x x x x x x x x ||
(47)
謂以法身佛 應知喩丈夫無障圓具身 是遍滿性故
(47)
依彼法身佛 故説大身喩身離一切障 及遍一切境
(47)
(47)
saṅs rgyas chos kyi skur bźed de | mi de daṅ ni ’dra ba yin ||sku ni sgrib pa med daṅ ldan | thams cad du ni ’gro ba daṅ ||
(47)
42. If, when one practises the right behaviour, one assumes: “I am a bodhisattva” (or “I am practising the Law” or “I subdue my mind”), this is called obstruction of mind (because in reality there is no bodhisattva): mind should repose nowhere (apratiṣṭhitam).Now one may contend: in the sūtra it is written that there is no bodhisattva; but, then, if there is no bodhisattva, how could the Buddha Sākyamuni practise at the time of Dīpaṃkara?
(48)
guṇamahātmyataś cāp mahākāyaḥ sa eva hi |abhāvakāyabhāvāc ca akāyo ’sau nirucyate ||
(48)
及徳體大故 亦名爲大身非有身是有 説彼作非身
(48)
功徳及大體 故即説大身非身即是身 是故説非身
(48)
此二偈示何義。畢竟遠離煩惱障智障。畢竟(c1)具足法身故。此復云何有二種義。一者遍一(2)切處。二者功徳大。是故名大身。偈言。功徳及(3)大體故。遍一切處者。眞如一切法不差別故。(4)偈言。非身即是身是故説非身故。如經世尊(5)如來説人身妙大。則非大身。是故如來説名(6)大身故。此説何義。非身者無有諸相。是名非(7)身大者。有眞如體。如是即名妙大身。如經是(8)名妙大身故(9)經曰。佛言。須菩提。菩薩亦如是。若作是言。(10)我當滅度無量衆生則非菩薩。佛言。須菩提。(11)於意云何。頗有實法名爲菩薩。須菩提言。不(12)也世尊。實無有法名爲菩薩。是故佛説一切(13)法無我無衆生無人無壽者。須菩提。若菩(14)薩作是言。我莊嚴佛國土。是不名菩薩。何以(15)故。如來説莊嚴佛土。莊嚴佛土者。即非莊嚴。(16)是名莊嚴佛國土。須菩提。若菩薩通達無我(17)無我法者。如來説名眞是菩薩菩薩(18)論曰。此中有疑。若無菩薩者。諸佛亦不成大(19)菩提。衆生亦不入大涅槃。亦無清淨佛國土。(20)若如是爲何義故。諸菩薩摩訶薩。發心欲令(21)衆生入涅槃。起心修行清淨佛國土。自下經(22)文爲斷此疑。云何斷疑。偈言
(48)
yon tan che ha ñid kyi phyir | de ñid sku ni che ba yin ||med pa’i lus ni yod pas na | de ni med pa’i lus zes bya ||
(48)
43. Since it was then prophesied by Dīpaṃkara that I should have become a Buddha in the future, I then did not practise, at the time of Dīpaṃkara, the supreme practice (because if I had then acquired the illumination, no prophecy could have heen made concerning me. Moreover when a bodhisattva makes the vow to become a Buddha, then, if he thinks that there is no illumination, this implies that there are no Buddhas - and this is a wrong assumption of nonexistence. In order to avoid this erroneous assumption the sūtra states that the Buddha is the real absolute, bhūtatathatā , p. 37, l. 3, where bhūta means “not false” and tathatā that “it cannot become another or change”. If, on the contrary, one thinks that illumination is realised, this is a false statemont, vitatha p. 37, l. 7); in fact illumination is equal to the practice (in the sense that there is nothing which can he practised, just as there is no such dharma as illumination which can he realised; if illumination could he ohtained) in that case it would not he real, being something produced.But is this not a complete negation of the possibilities of reaching perfect illumination? The sūtra replies: “what is realized by the Buddha is neither true nor false”, viz. na satyaṃ na mṛṣā p. 37, l. 13.
(49)
dharmadhātāv akuśalaḥ sattvanirvāpaṇe matiḥ |kṣetrāṇāṃ śodhane caiva x x x x x x x x ||
(49)
不了於法界 作度有情心及清淨土田 此名爲誑妄
(49)
不達眞法界 起度衆生意及清淨國土 生心即是倒
(49)
此義云何。若起如是心即是顛倒非菩薩者。(26)起何等心名爲菩薩。如經須菩提若菩薩通(27)達無我無我法者。如來説名眞是菩薩菩薩(28)故。此示何義。偈言
(49)
chos kyi dbyiṅs la mi mkhas pa | sems can mya nan ’da’ ba daṅ ||ziṅ rnams dag par bya har sems | des na phyin ci log pa yin ||
(49)
44. In so far (as all dharmas) are characterized as being devoid of any proper character, the dharmas are qualified as being not false, Therefore all dharmas are like the dharmas of the Buddhas (p. 77, l. 13, viz. bhūtatathatā) and so their character is that of being devoid of existence.What is the meaning of the words upetakāyo mahākāyo? “possessed of body, with a great body” p. 37, l. 15.
(50)
sattvānāṃ bodhisattvānāṃ dharmān yaś ca nairātmakān |buddhyādhimucyate ’nārya āryo dhīmān sa kaṭhyate ||
(50)
於菩薩衆生 諸法無自性若解雖非聖 名聖慧應知
(50)
衆生及菩薩 知諸法無我非聖自智信 及聖以有智
(50)
此明何義。知無我無我法者。謂衆生及菩薩。(3)何等衆生何等菩薩。於彼法若能自智信。若(4)世間智出世間智。所謂凡夫聖人。是人名爲(5)菩薩。此言攝世諦菩薩出世諦菩薩。是故重(6)説菩薩菩薩。如經如來説名眞是菩薩菩薩故(7)金剛般若波羅蜜經論卷中(11)金剛般若波羅蜜經論卷下(12) 天親菩薩造(13) 元魏*天竺*三藏菩提*流支*譯(14)經曰。須菩提。於意云何。如來有肉眼不。須菩(15)提言。如是世尊。如來有肉眼。佛言。須菩提。(16)於意云何。如來有天眼不。須菩提言。如是世(17)尊。如來有天眼。佛言。須菩提。於意云何。如(18)來有慧眼不。須菩提言。如是世尊。如來有慧(19)眼。佛言。須菩提。於意云何。如來有法眼不。(20)須菩提言。如是世尊。如來有法眼。佛言。須菩(21)提。於意云何。如來有佛眼不。須菩提言。如是(22)世尊。如來有佛眼。佛言。須菩提。於意云何。(23)如恒河中所有沙。佛説是沙不。須菩提言。如(24)是世尊。如來説是沙。佛言。須菩提。於意云(25)何。如一恒河中所有沙。有如是等恒河。是諸(26)恒河所有沙數佛世界。如是世界寧爲多不。(27)須菩提言。彼世界甚多世尊。佛告須菩提。爾(28)所世界中所有衆生。若干種心住如來悉知。(29)何以故。如來説諸心住皆爲非心住。是名爲(b1)心住。何以故。須菩提。過去心不可得。現在心(2)不可得。未來心不可得。須菩提。於意云何。若(3)有人以滿三千大千世界七寶持用布施。是(4)善男子善女人。以是因縁得福多不。須菩提(5)言。如是世尊。此人以是因縁得福甚多。佛言。(6)如是如是。須菩提。彼善男子善女人。以是因(7)縁得福徳聚多。須菩提。若福徳聚有實。如來(8)則不説福徳聚福徳聚(9)論曰。復有疑。前説菩薩不見彼是衆生。不見(10)我爲菩薩。不見清淨佛國土。何以故。以不見(11)諸法名爲諸佛如來。若如是或謂。諸佛如來(12)不見諸法。自下經文爲斷此疑故。説五種眼。(13)偈言
(50)
sems can byaṅ chub sems dpa’ yi | chos rnams su źig bdag med par ||blos mos ’phags bźin ’phags pa’aṅ ruṅ | de ni blo daṅ ldan zes brjod ||
(50)
45. On account of having a dharma-body, the Buddha is said to be similar to a man; on account of the absence of the two impediments (viz. the intellectual and moral impediments), his (body) is all-pervading.
(51)
nopalambhe ’pi dharmāṇāṃ cakṣur na hi na vidyate |buddhānāṃ pañcadhā tac ca vitathārthasya darśanāt ||
(51)
雖不見諸法 此非無有眼佛能具五種 由境虚妄故
(51)
雖不見諸法 非無了境眼諸佛五種實 以見彼顛倒
(51)
何故説彼非顛倒。爲顯斷疑譬喩。是故説我(17)知彼種種心住如是等。此示何義。彼非顛倒。(18)以見顛倒故。何者是顛倒。偈言
(51)
chos rnams la ni mi dmigs kyaṅ | saṅs rgyas rnams la spyan med bźin ||de ’aṅ rnam pa lṅa yod do | nor ba’i don tu gzigs pa’i phyir ||
(51)
46. But this body is also said to he “a great body”, because it is possessed of a greatness of qualities. The Buddha is also spoken of as being without a body, akāya at p. 37, l. 17, because his is a body of the non-existence [viz, asaṃskṛta-tathatā).Now the douht may arise: if there are no bodhisattvas, then there is no perfect illumination realized by the Buddha, there are no creatures to lead to nirvâna and no paradises; what would, then, he the scope of the vow of the bodhisattva to help the beings to enter nirvāna or to make them think of paradise? The following stanzas answer this doubt.
(52)
nānāvithatavijñapteḥ sṃṛtyupasthānavarjanāt |nirādhāraprabandho ’syā vitathāto nirucyate ||
(52)
種種心流轉 離於念處故彼無持常轉 故説爲虚妄
(52)
種種顛倒識 以離於實念不住彼實智 是故説顛倒
(52)
此義云何。種種顛倒者。彼種種心縁住。是名(22)種種識。以六種識差別顛倒。何故彼心住名(23)爲顛倒。偈言。以離於實念不住彼實智。是故(24)説顛倒故。如來説諸心住皆爲非心住者。此(25)句示現遠離四念處故。此以何義。心住者住(26)彼念處。以離彼念處故云不住。又住不動根(27)本名異義一。若如是不住是故説心住。此明(28)不住相續不斷行因是故不住。示彼相續顛(29)倒如經。何以故須菩提。過去心不可得。現在(c1)心不可得。未來心不可得。以過去未來故不(2)可得。現在心虚妄分別故不可得。如是示彼(3)心住顛倒。諸識虚妄以無三世觀故。何故依(4)福徳重説譬喩。偈言
(52)
nor pa’i rnam rig sna tshogs pa | dran pa ñe bar bźag med phyir ||de yi rgyun ni gźi med de | de yi phyir na nor źes bya ||
(52)
47. a) The inability to understand properly the dharmadhātu, b) the idea that one may lead creatures to nirvāṇa (p. 37, l. 20) and c) the opinion of purification (as leading to) Buddha-fields (p. 38, 1. 6) such (assumptions) as these are wrong views.
(53)
jñānasyādhārato jñeyā puṇye vitathatā na ca |tataḥ puṇyanimittaṃ hi punar dṛṣṭāntakīrtanam ||
(53)
應知是智持 福乃非虚妄顯此福因故 重陳共喩言
(53)
佛智慧根本 非顛倒功徳以是福徳相 故重説譬喩
(53)
此説何義。復有疑。向説心住顛倒。若如是福(8)徳亦是顛倒。若是顛倒何名善法。爲斷此疑(9)示現心住。雖顛倒福徳非顛倒。何以故。偈言。(10)佛智慧根本故。云何示現根本。如經。須菩提。(11)若福徳有實。如來則不説福徳聚福徳聚故。(12)此義云何。明有漏福徳聚是其顛倒。以此福(13)徳聚是有漏故。所以如來不説福徳聚。又福(14)徳聚者。即福徳聚。何以故。若非福徳聚者。如(15)來則不説爲智慧根本。是故福徳聚者。即福(16)徳聚(17)經曰。須菩提。於意云何。佛可以具足色身見(18)不。須菩提言。不也世尊。如來不應以色身見。(19)何以故。如來説具足色身。即非具足色身。是(20)故如來説名具足色身。佛言。須菩提。於意云(21)何。如來可以具足諸相見不。須菩提言。不也(22)世尊。如來不應以具足諸相見。何以故。如來(23)説諸相具足即非具足。是故如來説名諸相具(24)足(25)論曰。復有疑。若諸佛以無爲法得名。云何(26)諸佛成就八十種好三十二相。而名爲佛。爲斷(27)此疑。是故説非成就色身。非成就諸相得見(28)如來。又色身攝得八十種好三十二相。如經。(29)何以故。如來説具足色身。即非具足色身。是(a1)故如來説名具足色身。何以故。如來説諸相(2)具足即非具足。是故如來説名諸相具足故。(3)何故如是説。偈言
(53)
bsod nams ye śes gźi yin phyir | nor pa ma yin śes par bya ||de lta bas na bsod nams phyir | dpe ni bzlas te bstan par mdzad ||
(53)
48. The man who concentrates his intelligence on ail dharmas either of the (common) creatures or of the bodhisattvas (referring to sūtra p. 38, l. 9) and recognizes them as devoid of any self, this man, he he an unworthy man or he he a saint, is called an intelligent man, (a bodhisattva).[End of chapter 17]If one becomes enlightened only in so far as one does not see any dharma, then the Buddhas do not see any dharma. But this does not imply that the Buddha has no eyes (p. 38, l. 12 ff.):
(54)
na dharmakāyaniṣpattir anuvyañjanam ucyate |na ca lakṣaṇasaṃpattis tad akāyatvato matā ||
(54)
謂於眞法身 無隨好圓滿亦非是具相 非身性應知
(54)
法身畢竟體 非彼相好身以非相成就 非彼法身故
(54)
(54)
dpe byad bzaṅ po zes bya ba | chos kyi skur sgrub ma yin te ||mtshan rnams phun tshogs pa ’aṅ bźin | de phyir sku de’i sku min bźed ||
(54)
49. Although there is no perception of a dharma, this does not mean that (the Buddha) has no eyes; because his eye is fivefold and it sees the different errors.
(55)
dharmakāyāvinirbhāgān na dvayaṃ na tathāgataḥ |saṃpattir ucyate bhūyo dvayaṃ nāsty astitā tataḥ ||
(55)
於法身無別 非如來無二重言其具相 由二體皆無
(55)
不離於法身 彼二非不佛故重説成就 亦無二及有
(55)
此二偈説何義。彼法身畢竟體。非色身成就。(9)亦非諸相成就。以非彼身故。非彼身者。以非(10)彼法身相故。此二非不佛。即彼如來身有(11)故。何者是二。一者色身成就。二者諸相成就。(12)以此二法不離於法身。是故彼如來身成就(13)相好。亦得説有。云何説有。經言。色身成就諸(14)相成就故。是故偈言。彼二非不佛故。是故此(15)二亦得言無故。説非身成就非相成就。亦得(16)言有故。説色身成就諸相成就故。偈言。亦無(17)二及有故。何故如是説。以彼法身中無。即(18)於是義説。如來色身成就。諸相成就。以不離(19)彼身故。而法身不如是説。以法身非彼體故」(20)經曰。佛言。須菩提。於意云何。汝謂如來作是(21)念。我當有所説法耶。須菩提。莫作是念。何以(22)故。若人言如來有所説法則爲謗佛。不能解(23)我所説故。何以故。須菩提。如來説法説法者。(24)無法可説。是名説法(25)論曰。復有疑。若如來具足色身成就不可得(26)見。若相成就不可得見。云何言如來説法。自(27)下經文爲斷此疑。如經。若人言。如來有所説(28)法。則爲謗佛。不能解我所説故。此義云何。偈(29)言
(55)
chos kyi sku las dbyed med phyir | gñis pa de bźin gśegs med bźin ||phun sum tshogs źes yan brjod pas | de phyir gñis po med las yod ||
(55)
50. In so far as the various erroneous ideations are excluded from mindfnlness, their series (or flux as hinted by the sūtra: citta-dhāra ... bhāṣita p. 39, l. I1) has no stand whatever, (because past, future and present, in which that continuity shoùld develop, are not existent); therefore they are said to he false or wrong.[End of chapter 18]But why does the sūtra insert here, p. 39, l. 15, p. 40, l. 7, a new example concerning the accumulation of merits? One may in fact contend: if there is no such a thing as a flux of mental moments, the merit also which is accumulated would implicitely be impossible. If this merit is a false assumption, how then could virtue be realized? The reply is that there is no such thing as a flux of mental statuses; but this does not mean that accumulation of merit is to be avoided.
(56)
x x x x x x x x x x x x x kalpitā |dharmakāyāvinirbhāgād deśanāpy asvalakṣaṇā ||
(56)
如佛説亦無 説二是所執由不離法界 説亦無自性
(56)
如佛法亦然 所説二差別不離於法界 説法無自相
(56)
何故重言説法説法者。偈言。所説二差別故。(4)何者是二。一者所説法。二者所有義。何故言(5)無法可説是名説法者。偈言。不離於法界。説(6)法無自相故。此以何義。所説法離於眞法界。(7)不可得自相見故(8)經曰。爾時慧命須菩提白佛言。世尊。頗有衆(9)生於未來世聞説是法生信心不。佛言。須菩(10)提。彼非衆生非不衆生。何以故。須菩提。衆生(11)衆生者。如來説非衆生。是名衆生(12)論曰。復有疑。若言諸佛説者。是無所説法不(13)離於法身。亦是其無有何等人。能信如是甚(14)深法界。自下經文爲斷此疑。偈言
(56)
saṅs rgyas bźin du bstan med phyir | bstan pa rnam pa gñis las brtags ||chos kyi dbyiṅs las dbyer med pas | bstan pa ’aṅ raṅ gi mtshan ñid med ||
(56)
51. It should be known that there is no falsity in the accumulation of merit, in so far as this merit is a support of right understanding. Therefore, in order to explain the significance of this merit, there is another example concerning that very merit, (bahu puṇyaskandha p.: 40, l. 1, where skandha is certainly not taken in the sense of constitutive element, u padan askandha, because this would never be the support of right knowledge)[End of chapter 19]But now one may urge: if the Buddha is unoonditioned, asaṃskṛta, how then is it stated that he is possessed of the lower and superior signs of the great man? In order to reply to this question the sūtra says that the Buddha is not seen as the completion of bodily forms, rupakāyapariniṣpattyā p.40, l. 9 ff. nor as perfection of the signs of the great man (lakṣaṇasaṃpadā p.40, l. 13). Here, as said in the commentary, rūpa should be understood as anuvyañjana viz, the 84 minor signs. The Buddha replies that rūpakāyapariniṣpatti is in fact apariniṣpatti and that lakṣaṇasaṃpat is alakṣaṇasaṃpat. What does this mean?
(57)
deśyadaiśikagāṃbhīryaśraddhā na ca na santi hi |na sattvā nāpi cāsattvās te ’nāryārya x x x x ||
(57)
能説所説雖甚深 然亦非無敬信者由非衆生非非生 非聖聖性相應故
(57)
所説説者深 非無能信者非衆生衆生 非聖非不聖
(57)
何故言須菩提非衆生非不衆生者。偈言。非(18)衆生衆生非聖非不聖故。此以何義。若有信(19)此經。彼人非衆生。非衆生者。非無聖體。非無(20)聖體者。非凡夫體故。非不衆生者。以有聖體(21)故。彼人非凡夫衆生。非不是聖體衆生。如經。(22)何以故。須菩提衆生衆生者。如來説非衆生。(23)是名衆生故。如來説非衆生者。非凡夫衆生。(24)是故説衆生衆生。以聖人衆生是故説非衆(25)生(26)經曰。佛言。須菩提。於意云何。如來得阿耨多(27)羅三藐三菩提耶。須菩提言。不也世尊。世尊(28)無有少法如來得阿耨多羅三藐三菩提。佛(29)言。如是如是。須菩提。我於阿耨多羅三藐三(c1)菩提。乃至無有少法可得。是名阿耨多羅三(2)藐三菩提。復次須菩提。是法平等無有高下。(3)是名阿耨多羅三藐三菩提。以無衆生無人(4)無壽者。得平等阿耨多羅三藐三菩提。一切(5)善法得阿耨多羅三藐三菩提。須菩提。所言(6)善法善法者。如來説非善法。是名善法(7)論曰。復有疑。若如來不得一法名阿耨多羅(8)三藐三菩提者。云何離於上上證。轉轉得阿(9)耨多羅三藐三菩提。自下經文爲斷此疑。示(10)現非證法名爲得阿耨多羅三藐三菩提。此(11)義云何。偈言
(57)
ston daṅ bźad bya zab pa la | dad med pa ni ma yin te ||de dag ’phags bźin ’phags ldan phyir | sems can med bźin sems can bźin ||
(57)
52-53. The completion of the dharmakāya is not said to consist in the (appearance of the) secondary signs (= rūpakaya), nor is it the perfection of the signs of the great man, because that (perfection of dharmakāya) is considered as the absence of any body 1) (p. 40, n. 8-12); on the other hand since both these perfections (rūpakāyapariniṣpatti and lakṣaṇasaṃpat) are not distinct from the dharmakāya itself, (one should not think) that those two perfections are not the Tathāgata; (the sūtra) says once more “perfection” because their (co)existence (is indicative of the fact that) the existence of those two (as two contraries) has been transcended.[End of chapter 20](But now one may ask: if in the Buddha those two perfections are absent, then how is the teaching of the Buddha possible? p. 40, l. 17 ff.).
(58)
x x x x x x x x jñeyā bodhir anuttarā |na vṛddhyā dharmadhātau hi śuddhisāmyāt svalakṣaṇāt ||
(58)
少法無有故 無上覺應知由法界不増 清淨平等性
(58)
彼處無少法 知菩提無上法界不増減 淨平等自相
(58)
(58)
chos rnams rdul tsam med phyir daṅ | chos kyi dhyiṅs la skye med daṅ ||dag pa mñan phyir raṅ mtshan phyir | thabs kyaṅ bla na med pa’i phyir ||
(58)
(59)
upāyānuttaratvāc ca sāsravatvād adharmataḥ |śubhā na dharmā x x x x x x x x x x x ||
(59)
及方便無上 由漏性非法是故非善法 由此名爲善
(59)
有無上方便 及離於漏法是故非淨法 即是清淨法
(59)
此明何義。彼菩提處無有一法可證。名爲阿(17)耨多羅三藐三菩提。如經世尊無有少法如(18)來得阿耨多羅三藐三菩提法故。彼復有何(19)義。偈言。法界不増減。不増減者。是法平等。(20)是故名無上。以更無上上故。如輕。復次須菩(21)提是法平等無有高下。是名阿耨多羅三藐(22)三菩提故。又諸佛如來清淨法身。平等無差(23)別。於彼處無有勝者。是故説無上。如經以無(24)衆生無人無壽者。得平等阿耨多羅三藐三(25)菩提故。又彼法無我自體眞實。更無上上故。(26)名阿耨多羅三藐三菩提故。又彼法有無上(27)方便。以一切善法滿足故。説阿耨多羅三藐(28)三菩提。餘菩提者善法不滿足。更有上方便。(29)如經。一切善法得阿耨多羅三藐三菩提故。(1)須菩提所言善法善法者。如來説非善法。是(2)名善法者。何故如是説。偈言。及離於漏法是(3)故彼漏非是淨法此即是清淨法故。此以何(4)義。彼法無有漏法故。名非善法。以無有漏法(5)故。是故名爲善法。以決定無漏善法故(6)經曰。須菩提。三千大千世界中。所有諸須彌(7)山王。如是等七寶聚。有人持用布施。若人以(8)此般若波羅蜜經。乃至四句偈等。受持讀誦(9)爲他人説。於前福徳百分不及一。千分不及(10)一。百千萬分不及一。歌羅分不及一。數分不(11)及一。優波尼沙陀分不及一。乃至算數譬喩(12)所不能及(13)論曰。復有疑。若一切善法滿足。得阿耨多羅(14)三藐三菩提者。則所説法不能得大菩提。何(15)以故。以所説法無記法故。爲斷此疑。重説勝(16)福譬喩。示現何義。偈言
(59)
byaṅ chub bla med śes par bya | zag daṅ bcas pa chos bźin phyir ||dge ba’i chos rnams ma yin no | de phyir de ñid dge ba’i chos ||
(59)
54. Like the Buddha, the teaching of him (the Buddha) also cannot be said to exist: the teaching is imagined to be twofold (viz. words and meaning, which is hinted at by the repetition of the expression dharmadeśanā dharmadeśanā in the sūtra, p. 41, l. 2). (The sūtra adds that there is no such thing as the teaching of the doctrine, dharmadesanā) because the teaching, being not distinct from the dharmakāya, has no character of its own.But then, one may object, if there is no Buddha as the Teacher, then, evenhis teaching, being identified with the dharmakāya, will not exist. Who is the man who believes in such a deep theory? The sūtra therefore states: na te sattvā nāsattva etc., p. 41, l. 7.
(60)
naiva cāvyākṛtatve ’pi deśanā ’prāptaye matā |dharmaratnaṃ tataś caikaṃ ratnād anyād viśiṣyate ||
(60)
説法雖無記 非不得應知由斯一法寶 勝彼寶無量
(60)
雖言無記法 而説是彼因是故一法寶 勝無量珍寶
(60)
此義云何。雖言所説法是無記。而能得大菩(20)提。何以故。以遠離所説法不能得大菩提。以(21)是義故。此法能爲菩提因。又言無記者。此義(22)不然。何以故。汝法是無記而我法是記。偈言。(23)是故一法寶勝無量珍寶故。是故此所説法。(24)勝彼阿僧祇須彌等珍寶故。如經。若人以此(25)般若波羅蜜經。乃至一四句偈等。受持讀誦(26)爲他人説。於前福徳百分不及一如是等。此(27)示何義。偈言
(60)
bstan pa luṅ du ma bstan kyaṅ | thos par mi ’gyur bśed ma yin ||de phyir rin chen chos gcig na | rin chen mtha’ yas las kyaṅ ’phags ||
(60)
55. It is not that there are not those who believe in the depth of the things to be taught or of their teacher. They are neither sattva, beings, nor asattva, non beings: (as beings are here intended) those who are devoid of the characters of the saints (ārya), but possessed of those of the profane - pṛthagjana and as non-beings those who possess sainthood. (This means that as regards profaneness (pṛthagjanatva) beings are asattva; but having regard to sainthood they are not asattva. Therefore when the Buddha speaks of asattva non-being, he does so referring to the profane, but when he speaks of a non-asattva, this he does referring to the saints).[End of chapter 21]If, then, there is no such thing as the supreme illumination why then does the sūtra continully mention the supreme illumination? The s û t r a replies: nāsti sa etc. p. 41, l. 12.
(61)
saṃkhyāprabhavajātīnāṃ saṃbandhasya viśeṣaṇe |x x x x x x x x x x x x x labhyate ||
(61)
於諸算勢類 因亦有差殊尋思於世間 喩所不能及
(61)
數力無似勝 無似因亦然一切世間法 不可得爲喩
(61)
此説何等義。示於前福徳此福爲勝。云何爲(2)勝。一者數勝。二者力勝。三者不相似勝。四者(3)因勝。是故偈言。一切世間法不可得爲喩故(4)數勝者。如經百分不及一。乃至算數譬喩所(5)不能及故。以數無限齊故。攝得餘數應知力(6)勝者。如經。不及一歌羅分故。無似勝者。此福(7)徳中數不相似。以此福徳不可數故。如經數(8)不能及故。因勝者。因果不相似。以此因果(9)勝彼因果故。如經。乃至優波尼沙陀分不及(10)一故。又此法最勝無有世間法可喩此法故。(11)偈言。一切世間法不可得爲喩故。如是此福(12)徳中彼福微少。是故無法可喩(13)經曰。須菩提。於意云何。汝謂如來作是念。我(14)度衆生耶。須菩提。莫作是見。何以故。實無有(15)衆生如來度者。佛言。須菩提。若有實衆生如(16)來度者。如來則有我人衆生壽者相。須菩提。(17)如來説有我者。則非有我。而毛道凡夫生者。(18)以爲有我。須菩提。毛道凡夫生者。如來説名(19)非生。是故言毛道凡夫生(20)論曰。復有疑。若是法平等相無有高下者。云(21)何如來名爲度衆生。自下經文爲斷此疑。云(22)何斷疑。偈言
(61)
graṅs daṅ mthu daṅ rigs rnams daṅ | ’brel ba dag gi khyad par ni ||brtags kyaṅ ’jig rten thams cad na | dpe byar ruṅ ba mi rñed do ||
(61)
56-57. The illumination is to be known as supreme (p. 41, l. 14) because there is not the smaUest dharma (aṇur api dharmah, p. 41, l. 13) (which can transcend it); (this depends on the fact that) in the absolute (dharmadhātu) there is no possibility of further growth; on the contrary, there is complete equality of purity (p. 41, l. 16-18). It depends also on its proper character (viz. no ego, abso1ute stillness which does not imply any gradation), and on its being the supreme means (in so far as aU good dharmas are there completely perfected and there is no perfection, saṃpatti, of good dharmas except in illumination).What is the meaning of the good dharmas referred to by the sūtra p. 41, l. 19? Is this not contradictory with the statement that there is no dharma? (57, vv. b-d).In so far as there is no dharma by being possessed of defilement there cannot either be such a thing (as its opposite viz.) a good dharma. Therefore this dharma is called the good dharma (because its nature is absolutely, not relatively, good, atyantakuśala)[End of chapters 22-23]But if good dharmas are so understood, as conducive to illumination, then the dharma which is taught, the teaching, being avyākṛta, cannot he conducive to illumination. The doubt is out of place, as shown in the following stanza:
(62)
samatvād dharmadhātoś ca na sattvā mocitā jinaiḥ |sahanāmnā yataḥ skandhā dharmadhātvabahirgatāḥ ||
(62)
法界平等故 佛不度衆生於諸名共聚 不在法界外
(62)
平等眞法界 佛不度衆生以名共彼陰 不離於法界
(62)
此義云何。衆生假名與五陰共故。彼名共陰。(26)不離於法界。偈言。不離於法界故。彼法界無(27)差別故。偈言。平等眞法界故。是故如來不度(28)一衆生。偈言。佛不度衆生故。如經何以故。實(29)無有衆生如來度者故。佛言。須菩提。若有實(1)衆生如來度者。如來則有我人衆生壽者相(2)者。此明何義。偈言
(62)
chos kyi dbyiṅs ni mñam pa daṅ | phuṅ po miṅ bcas chos dbyiṅs las ||phyi rol ma gyur de yi phyir | rgyal bas sems can bkrol ba med ||
(62)
(63)
ātmagrāhasamo dosas ta x x x x x x x |x x x x x grāhe hi agrāhagrāhatā matā ||
(63)
若起於法執 與我執過同定執脱有情 是無執妄執
(63)
取我度爲過 以取彼法是取度衆生故 不取取應知
(63)
此義云何。若如來有如是心。五陰中有衆生(6)可度者。此是取相過。以著彼法故。偈言。取我(7)度爲過故。以取彼法是者。以取五陰中是衆(8)生故。取度衆生故者。欲令衆生得解脱。有如(9)是相故。經復言須菩提如來説有我者。則非(10)有我。而毛道凡夫生者。以爲有我者。此義云(11)何。偈言。不取取應知故。此以何義。以彼不(12)實義。是故彼不取。以不取者即是毛道凡夫(13)取而即是不取故。言不取取故。又須菩提毛(14)道凡夫生者。如來説名非生者。不生聖人法(15)故言非生(16)經曰。須菩提。於意云何。可以相成就得見如(17)來不。須菩提言。如我解如來所説義。不以相(18)成就得見如來。佛言。如是如是。須菩提。不以(19)相成就得見如來。佛言。須菩提。若以相成就(20)觀如來者。轉輪聖王應是如來。是故非以相(21)成就得見如來(22)論曰。復有疑。雖相成就不可得見如來。以非(23)彼體。以如來法身爲體。而如來法身以見相(24)成就。比知則知如來法身爲福相成就。自下(25)經文爲斷此疑。云何斷疑。偈言
(63)
bkrol bya’i sems can ’dzin na ni | de la chos su ’dzin ’gyur te ||bdag tu ’dzin daṅ ñes pa mtshuṅs | gzuṅ du med pas ’dzin par bśed ||
(63)
58. Though the teaching is avyākrta, it must not he considered as non-conducive to the illumination. Therefore only this jewel of the teaching is superior to any other jewel.So the merit which is derived from this gnosis is incomparably superior to any other merit as stated in the sūtra p. 42, l. 4 ff.
(64)
na caiva rūpakāyena so ’numeyas tathāgataḥ |dharmakāyo yataś cakravartī mābhūt tathāgataḥ ||
(64)
不應以色體 唯如來法身勿彼轉輪王 與如來齊等
(64)
非是色身相 可比知如來諸佛唯法身 轉輪王非佛
(64)
此義云何。有人言。福徳能成是相果報。以成(29)是相故。則知福徳力得大菩提。若如是如來(a1)則以相成就得阿耨多羅三藐三菩提。爲遮(2)此故。如經。若以相成就觀如來者。轉輪聖王(3)應是如來。是故非以相成就得見如來故此(4)義云何。偈言
(64)
gaṅ phyir ’khor lo sgyur ba yaṅ | de bźin gśegs pas brgol ’gyur phyir ||de bźin gśegs pa chos kyi sku | gzugs kyi sku las brtag pa min ||
(64)
59. As regards (the fourfold determination of difference in merit concerning) number, power, kind and connection, there is nothing in this world which, thoroughly examined, can he taken as an object of comparison with it. (refers to p. 42, l. 6 with full list at p. 35, l. 10).[End of chapter 24]One may urge: if the nature of dharma is pure identity, according to p. 41, l. 16, then there would he nobody to lead to it, nor anybody who could he led; this would contradict the statement of the Buddha that his aim is the liberation of beings. In order to meet this objection the sūtra says: nāsti ... parimocitaḥ p. 42, l. 10.
(65)
na ca lakṣaṇavaipākyapuṇy. x x x x x x |dharmakāyasya lābho hi upāyo yad vilakṣaṇaḥ ||
(65)
即具相果報 圓滿福不許能招於法身 由方便異性
(65)
非相好果報 依福徳成就而得眞法身 方便異相故
(65)
此明何義。法身者。是智相身。福徳者。是異相(8)身故(9)經曰。爾時世尊而説偈言(10) 若以色見我 以音聲求我(11) 是人行邪道 不能見如來(12) 彼如來妙體 即法身諸佛(13) 法體不可見 彼識不能知(14)論曰。此二偈説何義。偈言
(65)
mtshan ni rnam par smin pa yi | bsod nams phun sum tshogs pa las ||chos sku ’thob par mi bźed do | thabs daṅ mtshan ñid mi ’dra’ phyir ||
(65)
60. Because the creatures are identical with the absolute, no creature is liherated by the Victorious Ones, in as much as the elements composing the illusory person (skandha) along with names, (viz. nāmakāya) are not outside the absolute. Suppose that it were affirmed that within the skand has there is a soul to he liberated; this would amount to saying that there is a being (sattva), and therefore the sūtra adds: ātmagrāha – agrāha p. 42, l. 13.
(66)
rūpānuśravamātreṇa na buddhajñaḥ pṛthagjanaḥ |tathatādharmakāyo hi yato ’vijñānagocaraḥ ||
(66)
唯見色聞聲 是人不知佛此眞如法身 非是識境界
(66)
唯見色聞聲 是人不知佛以眞如法身 非是識境故
(66)
此示何義。如來法身不應如是見聞。不應如(18)是見聞者。不應如是見色聞聲。以何等人不(19)能見。謂凡夫不能見故。偈言。唯見色聞聲是(20)人不知佛故。如經。是人行邪道不能見如來(21)故。是人者。是凡夫人不能見眞如法身。如經。(22)彼如來妙體即法身諸佛。法體不可見彼識(23)不能知故(24)經曰。須菩提。於意云何。如來可以相成就。得(25)阿耨多羅三藐三菩提耶。須菩提。莫作是念。(26)如來以相成就得阿耨多羅三藐三菩提。須(27)菩提。汝若作是念。菩薩發阿耨多羅三藐三(28)菩提心者。説諸法斷滅相。須菩提。莫作是(29)念。何以故。菩薩發阿耨多羅三藐三菩提心(b1)者。不説諸法斷滅相故。須菩提。若善男子(2)善女人。以滿恒河沙等世界七寶持用布施。(3)若有菩薩知一切法無我。得無生法忍。此功(4)徳勝前所得福徳。須菩提。以諸菩薩不取福(5)徳故。須菩提白佛言。世尊。菩薩云何不取(6)福徳。佛言。須菩提。菩薩受福徳不取福徳。是(7)故菩薩取福徳(8)論曰。有人起如是心。若不依福徳得大菩提。(9)如是諸菩薩摩訶薩則失福徳。及失果報。自(10)下經文爲斷此疑。云何斷疑。偈言
(66)
chos sku de bźin ñid yin te | rnam śes spyod yul bźin pa’i phyir ||gzugs daṅ de ni sgra tsam las | skye bo saṅs rgyas mi rtog so ||
(66)
61. If one maintains the existence of a dharma whatsoever, one commits the same mistake as that of asserting the existence of a self (ātman). If (the existence) of a creature (to be) liberated is admitted, this is considered to he the (erroneous) admission of something which is no object of admission.[End of chapter 25]It may now he urged: You said that the Tathāgata cannot he seen as a perfection of signs (laksaṇasaṃpat) because he is dharmakāya, the ahsolute; but nevertheless this dharmakiāya, which is essentially the Tathāgata, can he inferred from that perfection of signs which make us know his perfection of merits. Therefore the sātra adds: tat kiṃ manyase... p. 42, l. 17.
(67)
na ca puṇyas x x x x x x x x x x x x |kṣāntilābhe ’pi nocchedo nirmalasyāsya lābhataḥ ||
(67)
其福不失亡 果報不斷絶得忍亦不斷 以獲無垢故
(67)
不失功徳因 及彼勝果報得勝忍不失 以得無垢果
(67)
(67)
bsod nams chud zar ’gyur ba med | de yi ’bras bu ’aṅ ’chad mi ’gyur ||dge ni dri med thob pas na | bzod pa thob kyaṅ chad mi ’gyur ||
(67)
62. Not indeed on account of the visible body can the Tathiigata he inferred, since He is only the ahsolute (dharmakāya); the Universal Ruler (cakravartin) (who is equally possessed of the characteristic signs of the great man) cannot he taken for the Tathāgata (as could happen if the mere presence of the signs is taken as indicative of the Buddha).That perfection of signs is certainly the maturation of the merits accumulated, but this is not the cause of supreme illumination: because, as concluded by the sūtra p. 43, l. 3 ff.:
(68)
punaḥ puṇyanimittaṃ hi tasmād dṛṣṭāntadeśanā |tat puṇyasyāvipākatvān nodgrahaḥ saparigrahaḥ ||
(68)
更論於福因 爲此陳其喩彼福無報故 正取非越取
(68)
示勝福徳相 是故説譬喩是福徳無報 如是受不取
(68)
此義云何。雖不依福徳得眞菩提。而不失福(16)徳及彼果報。何以故。以能成就智慧莊嚴功(17)徳莊嚴故。何故依彼福徳重説譬喩。偈言。得(18)勝忍不失以得無垢果故。此義云何。有人起(19)如是心。諸菩薩摩訶薩得無生法忍。以得出(20)世間智。失彼福徳及以果報。爲遮此故。示現(21)福徳不失。而更得清淨殊勝功徳。是故不失。(22)如經何以故菩薩發阿耨多羅三藐三菩提心(23)者。於法不説斷滅相故。若復有菩薩知一切(24)法無我。得無生法忍者。有二種無我。不生二(25)種無我相。是故受而不取。如經佛言。須菩提。(26)菩薩受福徳不取福徳。是故菩薩取福徳故。(27)云何菩薩受福徳不取福徳。偈言。是福徳無(28)報。如是受不取故。此義云何。取者彼福徳得(29)有漏果報。以有漏果報故。彼福徳可訶。如是(c1)取者名之爲取。如取非道故。此福徳無報。無(2)報者。無彼有漏報。是故此福徳受而不取(3)經曰。須菩提。若有人言。如來若去若來。若住(4)若坐若臥。是人不解我所説義。何以故如來(5)者無所至去無所從來。故名如來(6)論曰。若諸菩薩不受彼果報。云何諸菩薩福(7)徳衆生受用。偈言
(68)
de lta bas na bsod nams phyir | dpe bstan pa ni yan brjod do ||bsod nams des ni rnam smin med | de phyir ’dzin bcas log ’dzin min ||
(68)
63. The dharmakāya is not said to he obtained by a perfect accumnlation of merits, the maturation of which are the (thirtytwo) signs of the great man; in fact the means (in both cases) are different; (viz. gnosis being the very essence of dharmakāya, that dharmakāya cannot he identical with merits).Two gāthās, giving a resumé of these statements, follow in the sūtra, p. 43, l. 6-9.
(69)
tan nirmāṇaphalaṃ teṣāṃ puṇya x x x x x x |anābhogena yat karma buddhāḥ kurvanti dikṣu ca ||
(69)
彼福招化果 作利有情事彼事由任運 成佛現諸方
(69)
是福徳應報 爲化諸衆生自然如是業 諸佛現十方
(69)
此義云何。明諸佛化身有用。彼法身諸佛。不(11)去不來故。偈言。自然如是業。諸佛現十方故。(12)此復何義。偈言
(69)
de dag gi ni bsod nams de’i | ’bras bu sprul daṅ sems can gdul ||saṅs rgyas rnams gyi ’phrin las ’di | lhun gyis grub pa phyogs na mdzad ||
(69)
64. The profane cannot know the Buddha, because they only see his figure and hear his voice, In fact the ahsolute (dharmakāya), which is the only reality, transcends the field of discursive intelligence.[End of chapter 26]Somebody may argue that in so far as merits are not conducive to illumination, the meritorious deeds of the bodhisattva would have no result. In order to eliminate this doubt the sūtra answers: tat kiṃ manyase etc. p. 43, l. 10.
(70)
gatyādayas tu nirmāṇair buddhās tv avicalāḥ sadā |dharmadhātau ca tatsthānaṃ naikatvānyatvato matam ||
(70)
去來等是化 正覺常不動彼於法界處 非一異應知
(70)
去來化身佛 如來常不動於是法界處 非一亦不異
(70)
此明不去不來義故。如經何以故如來者。無(16)所至去無所從來故。此義云何。若如來有去(17)來差別。即不得言常。如是住常如是住者。不(18)變不異故(19)經曰。須菩提若善男子善女人。以三千大千(20)世界微塵。復以爾許微塵世界碎爲微塵阿(21)僧祇。須菩提於意云何。是微塵衆寧爲多不。(22)須菩提言。彼微塵衆甚多。世尊。何以故。若是(23)微塵衆實有者。佛則不説是微塵衆。何以故。(24)佛説微塵衆則非微塵衆。是故佛説微塵衆。(25)世尊如來所説三千大千世界。則非世界。是(26)故佛説三千大千世界。何以故。若世界實有(27)者。則是一合相。如來説一合相則非一合相。(28)是故佛説一合相。佛言。須菩提。一合相者。則(29)是不可説。但凡夫之人貪著其事。何以故。須(a1)菩提若人如是言。佛説我見人見衆生見壽(2)者見。須菩提於意云何。是人所説爲正語不。(3)須菩提言。不也世尊。何以故。世尊如來説。我(4)見人見衆生見壽者見。即非我見人見衆生(5)見壽者見。是名我見人見衆生見壽者見。須(6)菩提菩薩發阿耨多羅三藐三菩提心者。於(7)一切法應如是知。如是見如是信。如是不住(8)法相。何以故。須菩提所言法相。法相者。如(9)來説即非法相。是名法相。須菩提若有菩薩(10)摩訶薩。以滿無量阿僧祇世界七寶持用布(11)施。若有善男子善女人。發菩薩心者。於此般(12)若波羅蜜經乃至四句偈等。受持讀誦爲他(13)人説。其福勝彼無量阿僧祇。云何爲人演説。(14)而不名説是名爲説(15)論曰。碎微塵譬喩者。示現何義。偈言
(70)
sprul pa rnams kyis bźud la sogs | rtag tu mi g-yo saṅs rgyas rnams ||de dag chos kyi dbyiṅs gnas pa | gcig daṅ tha dad ma yin bźed ||
(70)
65. Even so, that merit is in no way lost nor its fruit suppressed; even if one possesses the supreme patience consisting in the realization that all dharmas are not born, no annihilation of merits (p. 43 last line p. 44 first line) follows from it, because one has obtained the realization of the spotless reality.[End of chapter 27]
(71)
rajomaṣīkriyā dhātor dṛṣṭāntas tasya dyotakaḥ |maṣīkaraṇatā kleśakṣayasyeha nidarśanam ||
(71)
微塵將作墨 喩顯於法界此論造墨事 爲*彰煩惱盡
(71)
世界作微塵 此喩示彼義微塵碎爲末 示現煩惱盡
(71)
此明何義。偈言於是法界處非一亦非異故。(19)彼諸佛如來。於眞如法界中。非一處住。亦非(20)異處住。爲示此義故。説世界碎微塵喩。此喩(21)示現何義。偈言微塵碎爲末示現煩惱盡故。(22)此喩非聚集微塵衆。示現非一喩。此義云何。(23)偈言
(71)
khams rdul phye mar bya ba ni | de na de yi dpe yin no ||’di la phye mar bya ba ni | non moṅs zad pa’i dpe yin no ||
(71)
66. Therefore in order to explain again that merit (is not in vain), another example is taught: (p. 43, l. 18 ff.); but since this merit do es not lead to a retribution (because illumination is asaṃskṛta, unconditioned), any acceptance of it do es not hring with it a wrong grasping of it (udgraha) as something existent; (this in fact would he a wrong view, sāsrava).[End of chapter 28]But it may he argued that, if the Bodhisattvas do not take upon themselves the fruit of their merits, how can this fruit he known and how can the visible activity of the Buddhas he explained? p. 44, l. 7 ff. api tu khalu ... yaḥ kaścid evaṃ vadet ...
(72)
asaṃcayatvāpiṇḍatvam anekatvanidarśanam |saṃhatasthānatā tasmin nānyatve ca nidarśanam ||
(72)
非聚非集性 顯是非一性於彼總集性 明其非異性
(72)
非聚集故集 非唯是一喩聚集處非彼 非是差別喩
(72)
此義云何。如微塵碎爲末非一處住。以無有(27)聚集物故。亦非異處差別。以聚集微塵差別(28)不可得故。以差別不住故。如是諸佛如來。遠(29)離煩惱障。住彼法界中。非一處住亦非異處(b1)住。如是三千世界一合相喩。非聚集故。此以(2)何義。如經如來説一合相則非一合相是故如(3)來説一合相故。若實有一物聚集。如來則不(4)説微塵聚集。如是若實有一世界。如來則不(5)説三千大千世界。如經若世界實有者則是一(6)合相故。但凡夫之人貪著其事者。以彼聚集(7)無物可取。虚妄分別。是故凡夫妄取。若有實(8)者即是正見故知妄取。何故凡夫無物而取(9)物。如經佛言須菩提一合相者則是不可説但(10)凡夫之人貪著其事如是等。此示何義。偈言
(72)
tshogs min ril po ma yin pas | ’du ma ñid kyi dpe yin no ||de la ’dus par gnas pa ni | tha dad ma yin dpe yin no ||
(72)
67-68. The miraculous fruit of that merit which they accumulate and their conversion of creatures is the work which the Buddhas accomplish in the (ten) quarters, viz. (everywhere and for ever) automatically (anābhogena).Their (apparent) (actions such as) going, and coming are accomplishad by miraculous emanations; but in reality the Buddhas are for ever motionless. Their abiding in the absolute (dharmadhātu) is stated to he neither identity with nor diversity from it.[End of chapter 29]What then is the meaning of the example of the atoms which follows in the sūtra p. 44, l. 12 ff. ?
(73)
vyavahāramātratāyā bālānām udgraho ’nyathā |dvayābhāvān na bodhyāptiḥ prahāṇād ātmadharmayoḥ ||
(73)
不了但俗言 諸凡愚妄執斷我法二種 非證覺無故
(73)
但隨於音聲 凡夫取顛倒非無二得道 遠離於我法
(73)
796b13-19: 如經何以故。須菩提。若人如是言。佛説我見(14)人見衆生見壽者見。如是乃至是名我見人(15)見衆生見壽者見故。此復何義。偈言非無二(16)得道遠離於我法故。此義云何。非無我無法。(17)離此二事而得菩提。云何得菩提。遠離彼二(18)見故得於菩提。偈言遠離於我法故。此復何(19)義。偈言
(73)
tha sñad tsam du ma śes phyir | byis pa gźan du log par ’dzin ||bdag daṅ chos gñis med pa’i phyir | de bas byaṅ chub thob mi ’gyur ||
(73)
(74)
tasmād dṛṣṭir adṛṣṭiś ca nairarthyābhūtakalpataḥ |sūkṣmam āvaraṇaṃ hy etat tathā jñānāt prahīyate ||
(74)
是故見無見 無境虚妄執由此是細障 如是知故斷
(74)
見我即不見 無實虚妄見此是微細障 見眞如遠離
(74)
是故見即不見。無其實義以虚妄分別。以是(23)無我。是故如來説彼我見即是不見。以其無(24)實。無實者。即是無物。以是義故。説我見即是(25)虚妄見。如是示現我見不見故。見法者亦是(26)不見。如經須菩提菩薩發阿耨多羅三藐三(27)菩提心於一切法應如是知如是見如是信(28)如是不住法相故。此復何義。以見法相即不(29)見相。如彼我見即非見故。何故此二見説名(1)不見。偈言此是微細障見眞如遠離故。此復(2)云何。彼見我見法。此是微細障。以不見彼(3)二故。是以見法而得遠離。偈言見眞如遠離(4)故。又如是知如是見如是信者。此示何義。偈(5)言
(74)
de phyir don med nor brtags pas | lta ba med daṅ lta bar ’gyur ||de gñis sgrib pa phra ba ste | de ltar śes pas spoṅ bar ’gyur ||
(74)
69. When the sūtra refers as an example to the reducing of the universe into a dust of atoms 1), this example is meant to make clear the same idea. The expression “reducing into dust” is intended to show (how the) destruction of the defilement should be understood.
(75)
jñānadvayasamādhānapraheyaṃ tac ca deśitam |nirmāṇaiḥ kaśaṇāt puṇyaṃ tad buddhānāṃ na nākṣayam ||
(75)
由得二種智 及定彼方除陳福明化身 非無無盡福
(75)
二智及三昧 如是得遠離化身示現福 非無無盡福
(75)
此義云何。示現世智第一義智。及依止三昧(9)得遠離彼障。是故重説勝福譬喩。此示何義。(10)偈言化身示現福非無無盡福故。此復何義。(11)雖諸佛自然化身作業。而彼諸佛化身説法。(12)有無量無盡無漏功徳故。云何爲人演説而(13)不名説是名爲説者。何故如是説。偈言
(75)
de yaṅ ye śes rnam gñis daṅ | tiṅ ṅe ’dzin gyi spaṅ par bstan ||saṅs rgyas rnams kyi sprul rnams kyis | bsad pa’i bsod nams zad mi ’gyur ||
(75)
70. The fact that there is no condition either of mass (saṃcaya) (p. 44, l. 17) of atoms nor of matter, indicates that things are not unity. The fact that a condition of collection exists, indicates that there is no diversity. (Just as when the atoms are reduced into dust they are neither identical with the thing they formed nor different, because the parts and the whole cannot be conceived one without the other, though they represent two different conditions of being, so also the state of Buddhahood is neither identical with the dharmadhātu nor different).p. 45, l. 7).But how is it that the profane thinks to grasp what in reality cannot be grasped? (sa ca bālapṛthagjanair udgrhītaḥ p. 45 l. 7)
(76)
nirmito ’smīti cātmānaṃ kāśayantas tathāgatāḥ |prakāśayanti nātmānaṃ tasmāt sā kāśanā satī ||
(76)
諸佛説法時 不言身是化由不自言故 是其眞實説
(76)
諸佛説法時 不言是化身以不如是説 是故彼説正
(76)
此義云何。若化身諸佛説法時。不言我是化(17)身。是故彼所説是正説。若不如是説者。可化(18)衆生不生敬心。何以故。以不能利益衆生。即(19)彼説是不正説。是故不説我是化佛(20)經曰(21)一切有爲法 如星翳燈幻(22)露泡夢電雲 應作如是觀(23)論曰。復有疑。若諸佛如來常爲衆生説法。云(24)何言如來入涅槃爲斷此疑。是故如來説彼(25)偈喩。此義云何。偈言
(76)
de bźin gśegs rnams ston pa ni | na ni sprul pa yin no zes ||bdag ñid ston par mi mdzad phyir | bstan pa de ni legs pa yin ||
(76)
71. Since the profane possesses only a wordly knowledge, he grasps all this, i.e, the nction of a mass or of matter referred to in the above example, in a different, way (from what it really is); it is in fact impossible that the illumination be obtained by the suppression of both, the ego (ātman) and the elements of existence (dharma), because both do not exist (and therefore cannot be suppressed).[End of chapter 30]So it is not the suppression of either the atom or of the elements of existence which leads to illumination, but the suppression of the wrong views concerning them. (p. 45, l. 11-12 yā sā... ātmadṛṣṭis... etc.].
(77)
saṃskāro na tathā nānyaṃ nirvāṇaṃ hi tathāgate |navadhā saṃbhūtasyeha saṃyagjñānaparīkṣaṇāt ||
(77)
如來涅槃證 非造亦不殊此集造有九 以正智觀故
(77)
非有爲非離 諸如來涅槃九種有爲法 妙智正觀故
(77)
此義云何。諸佛涅槃非有爲法。亦不離有爲(29)法。何以故。以諸佛得涅槃。化身説法示現世(1)間行。爲利益衆生故。此明諸佛以不住涅槃(2)以不住世間故。何故諸佛示現世間行。而不(3)住有爲法中。偈言九種有爲法妙智正觀故。(4)此以何義。如星宿等相對法。九種正觀故。此(5)九種正觀。於九種境界應知觀何境界。偈言
(77)
de bźin gśegs pa’i mya nan ’das | ’du byed ma yin gźan pa bźin ||’dir ni yaṅ dag śes pa yis | ’dus byas rnam pa dgur brtag phyir ||
(77)
72. Therefore both the view (viz. the affermative assumption of the existence of the ego or of the elements, dharma) as well as the non-view, (viz. the negation of something) derive from the assumption of something unreal or wrongly conceived. Both views (being originated from wrong imagination) are a subtle cover (āvaraṇa) which is eliminated by the knowledge of truth (as propounded in the sūtra).But then the sūtra adds: evam... jñātavyā... adhimoktavyāḥ p. 45, l. 14 ff. What is the meaning of these words?
(78)
dṛṣṭir nimittaṃ vijñānaṃ pratiṣṭhādehabhogatā |atītaṃ vartamānaṃ ca parīkṣyaṃ cāpy anāgatam ||
(78)
見相及與識 居處身受用過去并現存 未至詳觀察
(78)
見相及於識 器身受用事過去現在法 亦觀未來世
(78)
云何觀九種法。譬如星宿爲日所映有而不(9)現。能見心法亦復如是。又如目有*翳則見毛(10)輪等色。觀有爲法亦復如是。以顛倒見故。又(11)如燈識亦如是。依止貪愛法住故。又如幻所(12)依住處亦如是。以器世間種種差別無一體(13)實故。又如露身亦如是。以少時住故。又如泡(14)所受用事亦如是。以受想因三法不定故。又(15)如夢過去法亦如是。以唯念故。又如電現在(16)法亦如是。以刹那不住故。又如雲未來法亦(17)如是。以於子時阿黎耶識。與一切法爲種子(18)根本故。觀如是九種法。得何等功徳成就何(19)智。偈言
(78)
lta daṅ mtshan rnam ses daṅ | gnas daṅ lus daṅ loṅs spyod daṅ ||’das pa daṅ ni da ltar daṅ | ma ’oṅs brtag par bya ba yin ||
(78)
73. (Those words) indicates that that cover should be eliminated by the twofold knowledge (viz. the ordinary and the transcendental) and by concentration upon it,[End of chapter 31](Anyhow the merit derived from the gift of this gnosis leading to the realization of truth is immensely great. This is stated in the sūtra p. 45, l. 19 ff. with the purpose of making it sure that) such merit is not not indestructible, because it has been revealed by the emanations of the Buddha, (though the Tathāgata rests forever in his transcendent inactivity). Why then the sūtra asks kathaṃ saṃprakāsayet? p. 46, l. 3.4.
(79)
lakṣaṇasyopabhogasya pravṛtteś ca parīkṣaṇāt |nirmalāṃ teṣu vaśitāṃ saṃskāreṣu samāpnute ||
(79)
由觀察相故 受用及遷流於有爲事中 獲無垢自在
(79)
觀相及受用 觀於三世事於有爲法中 得無垢自在
(79)
此義云何。觀有爲法三種。一觀有爲法以觀(23)見相識。二者觀受用。以觀器世間等。以何處(24)住。以何等身受用何等。三者觀有爲行。以何(25)等法三世轉差別。如是觀一切法。於世間法。(26)中得自在故。偈言於有爲法中得無垢自在(27)故(28)經曰。佛説是經已。長老須菩提。及諸比丘比(1)丘尼。優婆塞優婆夷。菩薩摩訶薩。一切世間(2)天人。阿修羅乾闥婆等。聞佛所説皆大歡喜(3)信受奉行
(79)
mtshan ñid daṅ ni log pa daṅ | ’jug pa rnams ni brtag pa las ||’du byed rnams kyi gźi dag la | dbaṅ byed dri ma med pa ’thob ||
(79)
74. When the Tathāgatas preach (the Law) (for the benefit of the creatures), they do not preach the (existence) of a self saying “I am a miraculous emanation”; and therefore, because they do not preach the self, this preaching is excellent.But is it not stated that the Buddhas preach without end the Law through infinite emanations (nirmāṇa)? How then can they abide in a nirvanic condition?
(80)
triśatikāyāḥ prajñāpāramitāyāḥ kārikāsaptatiḥ samāptā || ||kṛtir iyam āryāsaṅgapādānām iti || ||
(80)
能斷金剛般若波羅蜜多經論頌
(80)
金剛般若波羅蜜經論卷下
(80)
諸佛希有總持法 不可稱量深句義從尊者聞及廣説 迴此福徳施群生(6)金剛般若波羅蜜經論卷下
(80)
śes rab kyi pha rol tu phyin pa rdo rje gcod pa bsad pa’i bsad sbyar gyi tshig leur byas pa rdzogs so ||
(80)
75. The nirvāṇa which is realized in the Tathāgata is not a product of karmic forces, saṃskāra, nor something different: (though they abide in the nirvanic condition, still they can make their emanations appear in order to benefit the creatures; but, in reality they do not abide either in nirvāṇa or in the samsaric world. All this can be clearly understood by an exhaustive enquiry into the correct knowledge concerning the nature (of what is produced by karmic agency, is conditioned, saṃskṛta) and happens to be in nine ways (as enunciated in the concluding gāthā of the sūtra p. 46, l. 5-6, and explained in the following stanzas).